UNESCO World Heritage Site Visits - Sean Clarke
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<query columns="21" rows="1121"><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(ix)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2007</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1133</http_url><id_number>1133</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1133.jpg</image_url><iso_code>al,at,be,bg,hr,de,it,ro,sk,si,es,ua</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>49.0097222222</latitude><location></location><longitude>22.3388888889</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2011,2017</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;&lt;span&gt;This transboundary property stretches over 12 countries. Since the end of the last Ice Age, European Beech spread from a few isolated refuge areas in the Alps, Carpathians&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span&gt;, Dinarides&lt;/span&gt;&lt;span&gt;, Mediterranean and Pyrenees over a short period of a few thousand years in a process that is still ongoing. The successful expansion across a whole continent is related to the tree’s &lt;/span&gt;&lt;span&gt;adaptability and tolerance of different climatic, geographical and physical conditions. &lt;/span&gt;&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe</site><states>Albania,Austria,Belgium,Bulgaria,Croatia,Germany,Italy,Romania,Slovakia,Slovenia,Spain,Ukraine</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>2152</unique_number></row><row><category>Mixed</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)(iv)(vii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1979</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/99</http_url><id_number>99</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_99.jpg</image_url><iso_code>al,mk</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>40.9918333333</latitude><location>Ohrid (municipality)</location><longitude>20.7041666667</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2019,1980</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;A superlative natural phenomenon, Lake Ohrid provides a refuge for numerous endemic species of freshwater fauna and flora dating from the Tertiary period. Situated on the shores of the lake, the town of Ohrid is one of the oldest human settlements in Europe. Built mainly between the 7th and 19th centuries, it has the oldest Slav monastery (St Pantelejmon) and more than 800 Byzantine-style icons dating from the 11th to the end of the 14th century. In the shallow waters near the shores of the lake, three sites testify to the presence of prehistoric pile dwellings, and the small Lin Peninsula is the site of the remains of an Early Christian church founded in the middle of the 6th century.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Natural and Cultural Heritage of the Ohrid region</site><states>Albania,North Macedonia</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>2313</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2014</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1459</http_url><id_number>1459</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1459.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ar,bo,cl,co,ec,pe</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-18.2500000000</latitude><location></location><longitude>-69.5916666667</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This site is an extensive Inca communication, trade and defence network of roads covering 30,000 km. Constructed by the Incas over several centuries and partly based on pre-Inca infrastructure, this extraordinary network through one of the world’s most extreme geographical terrains linked the snow-capped peaks of the Andes – at an altitude of more than 6,000 m – to the coast, running through hot rainforests, fertile valleys and absolute deserts. It reached its maximum expansion in the 15th century, when it spread across the length and breadth of the Andes. The Qhapac Ñan, Andean Road System includes 273 component sites spread over more than 6,000 km that were selected to highlight the social, political, architectural and engineering achievements of the network, along with its associated infrastructure for trade, accommodation and storage, as well as sites of religious significance.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;span&gt; &lt;/span&gt;&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Qhapaq Ñan, Andean Road System</site><states>Argentina,Bolivia (Plurinational State of),Chile,Colombia,Ecuador,Peru</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>2003</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1983</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/275</http_url><id_number>275</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_275.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ar,br</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-28.5433333300</latitude><location>State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Province of Misiones, Argentina</location><longitude>-54.2658333300</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>1984</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The ruins of S&amp;atilde;o Miguel das Miss&amp;otilde;es in Brazil, and those of San Ignacio Min&amp;iacute;, Santa Ana, Nuestra Se&amp;ntilde;ora de Loreto and Santa Mar&amp;iacute;a la Mayor in Argentina, lie at the heart of a tropical forest. They are the impressive remains of five Jesuit missions, built in the land of the Guaranis during the 17th and 18th centuries. Each is characterized by a specific layout and a different state of conservation.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Jesuit Missions of the Guaranis: San Ignacio Mini, Santa Ana, Nuestra Señora de Loreto and Santa Maria Mayor (Argentina), Ruins of Sao Miguel das Missoes (Brazil)</site><states>Argentina,Brazil</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>326</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2011</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1363</http_url><id_number>1363</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1363.jpg</image_url><iso_code>at,fr,de,it,si,ch</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>47.2783333333</latitude><location></location><longitude>8.2075000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This serial property of 111 small individual sites encompasses the remains of prehistoric pile-dwelling (or stilt house) settlements in and around the Alps built from around 5000 to 500 B.C. on the edges of lakes, rivers or wetlands. Excavations, only conducted in some of the sites, have yielded evidence that provides insight into life in prehistoric times during the Neolithic and Bronze Age in Alpine Europe and the way communities interacted with their environment. Fifty-six of the sites are located in Switzerland. The settlements are a unique group of exceptionally well-preserved and culturally rich archaeological sites, which constitute one of the most important sources for the study of early agrarian societies in the region.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Prehistoric Pile Dwellings around the Alps</site><states>Austria,France,Germany,Italy,Slovenia,Switzerland</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>1782</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2001</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/772</http_url><id_number>772</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_772.jpg</image_url><iso_code>at,hu</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (v):&lt;/em&gt; The Fert&amp;ouml;-Neusiedler Lake has been the meeting place of different cultures for eight millennia, and this is graphically demonstrated by its varied landscape, the result of an evolutionary and symbiotic process of human interaction with the physical environment.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>47.7192777800</latitude><location>State of Burgenland (AT) / County of Györ-Moson-Sopron (HU)</location><longitude>16.7227222200</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Fert&amp;ouml;/Neusiedler Lake area has been the meeting place of different cultures for eight millennia. This is graphically demonstrated by its varied landscape, the result of an evolutionary symbiosis between human activity and the physical environment. The remarkable rural architecture of the villages surrounding the lake and several 18th- and 19th-century palaces adds to the area&amp;rsquo;s considerable cultural interest.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Fertö / Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape</site><states>Austria,Hungary</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>913</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2005</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1187</http_url><id_number>1187</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1187.jpg</image_url><iso_code>by,ee,fi,lv,lt,no,md,ru,se,ua</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii): &lt;/em&gt;The first accurate measuring of a long segment of a meridian, helping in the establishment of the exact size and shape of the world exhibits an important step in the development of earth sciences. It is also an extraordinary example for interchange of human values in the form of scientific collaboration among scientists from different countries. It is at the same time an example for collaboration between monarchs of different powers, for a scientific cause.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv): &lt;/em&gt;The Struve Geodetic Arc is undoubtedly an outstanding example of technological ensemble – presenting the triangulation points of the measuring of the meridian, being the non movable and non tangible part of the measuring technology.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (vi): &lt;/em&gt;The measuring of the arc and its results are directly associated with men wondering about his world, its shape and size. It is linked with Sir Isaac Newton's theory that the world is not an exact sphere.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>59.0577777778</latitude><location></location><longitude>26.3377777777</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Struve Arc is a chain of survey triangulations stretching from Hammerfest in Norway to the Black Sea, through 10 countries and over 2,820 km. These are points of a survey, carried out between 1816 and 1855 by the astronomer Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Struve, which represented the first accurate measuring of a long segment of a meridian. This helped to establish the exact size and shape of the planet and marked an important step in the development of earth sciences and topographic mapping. It is an extraordinary example of scientific collaboration among scientists from different countries, and of collaboration between monarchs for a scientific cause. The original arc consisted of 258 main triangles with 265 main station points. The listed site includes 34 of the original station points, with different markings, i.e. a drilled hole in rock, iron cross, cairns, or built obelisks.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Struve Geodetic Arc</site><states>Belarus,Estonia,Finland,Latvia,Lithuania,Norway,Republic of Moldova,Russian Federation,Sweden,Ukraine</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>1364</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1979</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/33</http_url><id_number>33</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_33.jpg</image_url><iso_code>by,pl</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>52.7275000000</latitude><location></location><longitude>23.9811111111</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>1992,2014</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Białowieża Forest World Heritage site, on the border between Poland and Belarus, is an immense range of primary forest including both conifers and broadleaved trees covering a total area of 141,885 hectares. Situated on the watershed of the Baltic Sea and Black Sea, this transboundary property is exceptional for the opportunities it offers for biodiversity conservation. It is home to the largest population of the property’s iconic species, the European bison.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Białowieża Forest</site><states>Belarus,Poland</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>2005</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1999</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/943</http_url><id_number>943</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_943.jpg</image_url><iso_code>be,fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>50.1744400000</latitude><location></location><longitude>3.2313900000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2005</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Twenty-three belfries in the north of France and the belfry of Gembloux in Belgium were inscribed in 2005, as an extension to the 32 Belgian belfries inscribed in 1999 as Belfries of Flanders and Wallonia. Built between the 11th and 17th centuries, they showcase the Roman, Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque styles of architecture. They are highly significant tokens of the winning of civil liberties. While Italian, German and English towns mainly opted to build town halls, in part of north-western Europe, greater emphasis was placed on building belfries. Compared with the keep (symbol of the seigneurs) and the bell-tower (symbol of the Church), the belfry, the third tower in the urban landscape, symbolizes the power of the aldermen. Over the centuries, they came to represent the influence and wealth of the towns.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Belfries of Belgium and France</site><states>Belgium,France</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>1100</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2016</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1321</http_url><id_number>1321</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1321.jpg</image_url><iso_code>be,fr,de,ch,in,jp,ar</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>46.4684138889</latitude><location></location><longitude>6.8293361111</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Chosen from the work of Le Corbusier, the 17 sites comprising this transnational serial property are spread over seven countries and are a testimonial to the invention of a new architectural language that made a break with the past. They were built over a period of a half-century, in the course of what Le Corbusier described as “patient research”. The Complexe du Capitole in Chandigarh (India), the National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo (Japan), the House of Dr Curutchet in La Plata (Argentina) and the Unité d’habitation in Marseille (France) reflect the solutions that the Modern Movement sought to apply during the 20th century to the challenges of inventing new architectural techniques to respond to the needs of society. These masterpieces of creative genius also attest to the internationalization of architectural practice across the planet.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier, an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement</site><states>Belgium,France,Germany,Switzerland,India,Japan,Argentina</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>2085</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1996</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/749</http_url><id_number>749</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_749.jpg</image_url><iso_code>bj,bf,ne</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>11.8841666667</latitude><location></location><longitude>2.4877777778</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2017</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This transnational extension (Benin, Burkina Faso) to the W National Park of Niger, inscribed in 1996 on the World Heritage List, cover a major expanse of intact Sudano-Sahelian savannah, with vegetation types including grasslands, shrub lands, wooded savannah and extensive gallery forests. It includes the largest and most important continuum of terrestrial, semi-aquatic and aquatic ecosystems in the West African savannah belt. The property is a refuge for wildlife species that have disappeared elsewhere in West Africa or are highly threatened. It is home to the largest population of elephants in West Africa and most of the large mammals typical of the region, such as the African Manatee, cheetah, lion and leopard. It also harbours the only viable population of lions in the region.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>W-Arly-Pendjari Complex</site><states>Benin,Burkina Faso,Niger</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>2129</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2016</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1504</http_url><id_number>1504</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1504.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ba,hr,rs,me</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>43.0922138889</latitude><location></location><longitude>17.9240527778</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This serial property combines 28 sites, located in Bosnia and Herzegovina, western Serbia, western Montenegro and central and southern Croatia, representing these cemeteries and regionally distinctive medieval tombstones, or stećci. The cemeteries, which date from the 12th to 16th centuries CE, are laid out in rows, as was the common custom in Europe from the Middle Ages. The stećci are mostly carved from limestone. They feature a wide range of decorative motifs and inscriptions that represent iconographic continuities within medieval Europe as well as locally distinctive traditions.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Stećci Medieval Tombstone Graveyards</site><states>Bosnia and Herzegovina,Croatia,Serbia,Montenegro</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>2094</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2012</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1380</http_url><id_number>1380</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1380.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cm,cf,cg</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>2.6094444444</latitude><location></location><longitude>16.5541666667</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Situated in the north-western Congo Basin, where Cameroon, Central African Republic and Congo meet, the site encompasses three contiguous national parks totalling around 750,000 ha. Much of the site is unaffected by human activity and features a wide range of humid tropical forest ecosystems with rich flora and fauna, including Nile crocodiles and goliath tigerfish, a large predator. Forest clearings support herbaceous species and Sangha is home to considerable populations of forest elephants, critically endangered western lowland gorilla, and endangered chimpanzee. The site’s environment has preserved the continuation of ecological and evolutionary processes on a huge scale and great biodiversity, including many endangered animal species.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Sangha Trinational</site><states>Cameroon,Central African Republic,Congo</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>1920</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(viii)(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1979</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/72</http_url><id_number>72</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_72.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ca,us</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>61.1975833300</latitude><location>Kluane: Yukon Territory (Canada) and Alaska (USA)&#xd;
&#xd;
Glacier Bay: Alaska (USA)&#xd;
&#xd;
Tatshenshini: Province of British Columbia (Canada)</location><longitude>-140.9919722000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>1992, 1994</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;These parks comprise an impressive complex of glaciers and high peaks on both sides of the border between Canada (Yukon Territory and British Columbia) and the United States (Alaska). The spectacular natural landscapes are home to many grizzly bears, caribou and Dall's sheep. The site contains the largest non-polar icefield in the world.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Kluane / Wrangell-St. Elias / Glacier Bay / Tatshenshini-Alsek</site><states>Canada,United States of America</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>78</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(ix)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1995</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/354</http_url><id_number>354</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_354.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ca,us</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>48.9960555600</latitude><location>Province of Alberta, Canada; State of Montana, USA</location><longitude>-113.9041667000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;In 1932 Waterton Lakes National Park (Alberta, Canada) was combined with the Glacier National Park (Montana, United States) to form the world's first International Peace Park. Situated on the border between the two countries and offering outstanding scenery, the park is exceptionally rich in plant and mammal species as well as prairie, forest, and alpine and glacial features.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Waterton Glacier International Peace Park</site><states>Canada,United States of America</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>407</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(v)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2014</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1442</http_url><id_number>1442</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1442.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn,kz,kg</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>34.3044444444</latitude><location></location><longitude>108.8572222222</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This property is a 5,000 km section of the extensive Silk Roads network, stretching from Chang’an/Luoyang, the central capital of China in the Han and Tang dynasties, to the Zhetysu region of Central Asia. It took shape between the 2nd century BC and 1st century AD and remained in use until the 16th century, linking multiple civilizations and facilitating far-reaching exchanges of activities in trade, religious beliefs, scientific knowledge, technological innovation, cultural practices and the arts. The thirty-three components included in the routes network include capital cities and palace complexes of various empires and Khan kingdoms, trading settlements, Buddhist cave temples, ancient paths, posthouses, passes, beacon towers, sections of The Great Wall, fortifications, tombs and religious buildings.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Silk Roads: the Routes Network of Chang'an-Tianshan Corridor</site><states>China,Kazakhstan,Kyrgyzstan</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>1985</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(viii)(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1983</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/205</http_url><id_number>205</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_205.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cr,pa</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>9.4070833330</latitude><location>Provincias de Bocas del Toro y Chiriqui, Panama; San Jose, Cartago, Limon and Puntarenas Provinces, Costa Rica</location><longitude>-82.9388055600</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>1990</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The location of this unique site in Central America, where Quaternary glaciers have left their mark, has allowed the fauna and flora of North and South America to interbreed. Tropical rainforests cover most of the area. Four different Indian tribes inhabit this property, which benefits from close co-operation between Costa Rica and Panama.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Talamanca Range-La Amistad Reserves / La Amistad National Park</site><states>Costa Rica,Panama</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>226</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger>Y 1992</danger><date_inscribed>1981</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/155</http_url><id_number>155</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_155.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ci,gn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>7.6031800000</latitude><location>Région de Lola</location><longitude>-8.3909700000</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>1982</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Located on the borders of Guinea, Liberia and Côte d’Ivoire, Mount Nimba rises above the surrounding savannah. Its slopes are covered by dense forest at the foot of grassy mountain pastures. They harbour an especially rich flora and fauna, with endemic species such as the viviparous toad and chimpanzees that use stones as tools.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve</site><states>Côte d'Ivoire,Guinea</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>173</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2017</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1533</http_url><id_number>1533</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1533.jpg</image_url><iso_code>hr,it,me</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>45.7033333333</latitude><location></location><longitude>9.6636111111</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This property consists of 6 components of defence works in Italy, Croatia and Montenegro, spanning more than 1,000 km between the Lombard region of Italy and the eastern Adriatic Coast. The fortifications throughout the &lt;em&gt;Stato da Terra &lt;/em&gt;protected the Republic of Venice from other European powers to the northwest and those of the &lt;em&gt;Stato da Mar &lt;/em&gt;protected the sea routes and ports in the Adriatic Sea to the Levant. They were necessary to support the expansion and authority of the &lt;em&gt;Serenissima&lt;/em&gt;. The introduction of gunpowder led to significant shifts in military techniques and architecture that are reflected in the design of so-called &lt;em&gt;alla moderna /&lt;/em&gt;&lt;em&gt; &lt;/em&gt;bastioned, fortifications, which were to spread throughout Europe.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Venetian Works of Defence between the 16th and 17th Centuries: &lt;em&gt;Stato da Terra&lt;/em&gt; – Western &lt;em&gt;Stato da Mar&lt;/em&gt;</site><states>Croatia,Italy,Montenegro</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>2162</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2019</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1478</http_url><id_number>1478</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1478.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cz,de</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>50.4065277778</latitude><location></location><longitude>12.8373444444</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Erzgebirge/Krušnohoří (Ore Mountains) spans a region in south-eastern Germany (Saxony) and north-western Czechia, which contains a wealth of several metals exploited through mining from the Middle Ages onwards. The region became the most important source of silver ore in Europe from 1460 to 1560. Mining was the trigger for technological and scientific innovations transferred worldwide. Tin was historically the second metal to be extracted and processed at the site. At the end of the 19th century, the region became a major global producer of uranium. The cultural landscape of the Ore Mountains has been deeply shaped by 800 years of almost continuous mining, from the 12th to the 20th century, with mining, pioneering water management systems, innovative mineral processing and smelting sites, and mining cities.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Erzgebirge/Krušnohoří Mining Region</site><states>Czechia,Germany</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>2267</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(viii)(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2009</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1314</http_url><id_number>1314</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1314.jpg</image_url><iso_code>dk,de,nl</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>53.5286111111</latitude><location></location><longitude>8.5561111111</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2014</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Wadden Sea is the largest unbroken system of intertidal sand and mud flats in the world. The site covers the Dutch Wadden Sea Conservation Area, the German Wadden Sea National Parks of Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein, and most of the Danish Wadden Sea maritime conservation area. It is a large, temperate, relatively flat coastal wetland environment, formed by the intricate interactions between physical and biological factors that have given rise to a multitude of transitional habitats with tidal channels, sandy shoals, sea-grass meadows, mussel beds, sandbars, mudflats, salt marshes, estuaries, beaches and dunes. The area is home to numerous plant and animal species, including marine mammals such as the harbour seal, grey seal and harbour porpoise. Wadden Sea is one of the last remaining large-scale, intertidal ecosystems where natural processes continue to function largely undisturbed.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Wadden Sea</site><states>Denmark,Germany,Netherlands</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>1967</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(viii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2000</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/898</http_url><id_number>898</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_898.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fi,se</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>63.3000000000</latitude><location></location><longitude>21.3000000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2006</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Kvarken Archipelago (Finland) and the High Coast (Sweden) are situated in the Gulf of Bothnia, a northern extension of the Baltic Sea. The 5,600 islands of the Kvarken Archipelago feature unusual ridged washboard moraines, &amp;lsquo;De Geer moraines&amp;rsquo;, formed by the melting of the continental ice sheet, 10,000 to 24,000 years ago. The Archipelago is continuously rising from the sea in a process of rapid glacio-isostatic uplift, whereby the land, previously weighed down under the weight of a glacier, lifts at rates that are among the highest in the world. As a consequence islands appear and unite, peninsulas expand, and lakes evolve from bays and develop into marshes and peat fens. The High Coast has also been largely shaped by the combined processes of glaciation, glacial retreat and the emergence of new land from the sea. Since the last retreat of the ice from the High Coast 9,600 years ago, the uplift has been in the order of 285 m which is the highest known ''rebound''. The site affords outstanding opportunities for the understanding of the important processes that formed the glaciated and land uplift areas of the Earth''s surface.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>High Coast / Kvarken Archipelago</site><states>Finland,Sweden</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>1050</unique_number></row><row><category>Mixed</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)(v)(vii)(viii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1997</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/773</http_url><id_number>773</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_773.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr,es</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee inscribed the site under natural &lt;em&gt;criteria (vii) and (viii)&lt;/em&gt;. The calcareous massif of the Mount Perdu displays classic geological land forms, including deep canyons and spectacular cirque walls. It is also an outstanding scenic landscape with meadows, lakes, caves and forests on mountain slopes. In addition, the area is of high interest to science and conservation. Concerning cultural values, the Committee inscribed the property on the basis of &lt;em&gt;criteria (iii), (iv) and (v)&lt;/em&gt;: The Pyr&amp;eacute;n&amp;eacute;es-Mont Perdu area between France and Spain is an outstanding cultural landscape which combines scenic beauty with a socio-economic structure that has its roots in the past and illustrates a mountain way of life that has become rare in Europe.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>42.6854200000</latitude><location>France: Midi-Pyrénées Region, Hautes-Pyrénées Déparetment; 1999 Extension: Commune of Gèdre&lt;br&gt;&#xd;
Spain:Autonomous Community of Aragón, Province of Huesca, Communes of Torla, Fanlo, Tella-Sin, Puértolas, Bielsa, and Broto</location><longitude>-0.0005000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>1999</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This outstanding mountain landscape, which spans the contemporary national borders of France and Spain, is centred around the peak of Mount Perdu, a calcareous massif that rises to 3,352 m. The site, with a total area of 30,639 ha, includes two of Europe's largest and deepest canyons on the Spanish side and three major cirque walls on the more abrupt northern slopes with France, classic presentations of these geological landforms. The site is also a pastoral landscape reflecting an agricultural way of life that was once widespread in the upland regions of Europe but now survives only in this part of the Pyr&amp;eacute;n&amp;eacute;es. Thus it provides exceptional insights into past European society through its landscape of villages, farms, fields, upland pastures and mountain roads.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Pyrénées - Mont Perdu</site><states>France,Spain</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>915</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2006</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1226</http_url><id_number>1226</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1226.jpg</image_url><iso_code>gm,sn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>13.6911111111</latitude><location>Central River Division - Gambia, Kaolack Region - Senegal</location><longitude>-15.5225000000</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The site consists of four large groups of stone circles that represent an extraordinary concentration of over 1,000 monuments in a band 100 km wide along some 350 km of the River Gambia. The four groups, Sine Ngayène, Wanar, Wassu and Kerbatch, cover 93 stone circles and numerous tumuli, burial mounds, some of which have been excavated to reveal material that suggest dates between 3rd century BC and 16th century AD. Together the stone circles of laterite pillars and their associated burial mounds present a vast sacred landscape created over more than 1,500 years. It reflects a prosperous, highly organized and lasting society.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Stone Circles of Senegambia</site><states>Gambia (the),Senegal</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>1403</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2004</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1127</http_url><id_number>1127</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1127.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de,pl</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (i):&lt;/em&gt; Muskauer Park is an exceptional example of a European landscape park that broke new ground in terms of development towards an ideal made-made landscape.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; Muskauer Park was the forerunner for new approaches to landscape design in cities, and influenced the development of &amp;lsquo;landscape architecture&amp;rsquo; as a discipline.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>51.5793055600</latitude><location></location><longitude>14.7264444400</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;A landscaped park of 559.9 ha astride the Neisse River and the border between Poland and Germany, it was created by Prince Hermann von Puckler-Muskau from 1815 to 1844. Blending seamlessly with the surrounding farmed landscape, the park pioneered new approaches to landscape design and influenced the development of landscape architecture in Europe and America. Designed as a &amp;lsquo;painting with plants&amp;rsquo;, it did not seek to evoke classical landscapes, paradise, or some lost perfection, instead using local plants to enhance the inherent qualities of the existing landscape. This integrated landscape extends into the town of Muskau with green passages that formed urban parks framing areas for development. The town thus became a design component in a utopian landscape. The site also features a reconstructed castle, bridges and an arboretum.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Muskauer Park / Park Mużakowski</site><states>Germany,Poland</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>1307</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1987</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/430</http_url><id_number>430</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_430.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de,gb</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>54.9926111111</latitude><location></location><longitude>-2.6010000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2005,2008</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The ‘Roman Limes’ represents the border line of the Roman Empire at its greatest extent in the 2nd century AD. It stretched over 5,000 km from the Atlantic coast of northern Britain, through Europe to the Black Sea, and from there to the Red Sea and across North Africa to the Atlantic coast. The remains of the Limes today consist of vestiges of built walls, ditches, forts, fortresses, watchtowers and civilian settlements. Certain elements of the line have been excavated, some reconstructed and a few destroyed. The two sections of the Limes in Germany cover a length of 550 km from the north-west of the country to the Danube in the south-east. The 118-km-long Hadrian’s Wall (UK) was built on the orders of the Emperor Hadrian c. AD 122 at the northernmost limits of the Roman province of Britannia. It is a striking example of the organization of a military zone and illustrates the defensive techniques and geopolitical strategies of ancient Rome. The Antonine Wall, a 60-km long fortification in Scotland was started by Emperor Antonius Pius in 142 AD as a defense against the “barbarians” of the north. It constitutes the northwestern-most portion of the Roman Limes.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Frontiers of the Roman Empire</site><states>Germany,United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>1539</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1980</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/91</http_url><id_number>91</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_91.jpg</image_url><iso_code>va,it</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>41.8902222200</latitude><location>Province of Roma, Lazio region (IT) / Vatican City State (VA)&#xd;
</location><longitude>12.4923055600</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>1990</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Founded, according to legend, by Romulus and Remus in 753 BC, Rome was first the centre of the Roman Republic, then of the Roman Empire, and it became the capital of the Christian world in the 4th century. The World Heritage site, extended in 1990 to the walls of Urban VIII, includes some of the major monuments of antiquity such as the Forums, the Mausoleum of Augustus, the Mausoleum of Hadrian, the Pantheon, Trajan’s Column and the Column of Marcus Aurelius, as well as the religious and public buildings of papal Rome.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic Centre of Rome, the Properties of the Holy See in that City Enjoying Extraterritorial Rights and San Paolo Fuori le Mura</site><states>Holy See,Italy</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>2114</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(viii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1995</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/725</http_url><id_number>725</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_725.jpg</image_url><iso_code>hu,sk</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>48.4757300000</latitude><location>Districts of Rožnava and Spišská Nová Ves, Region of Košice (SK)</location><longitude>20.4868700000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2000</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The variety of formations and the fact that they are concentrated in a restricted area means that the 712 caves currently identified make up a typical temperate-zone karstic system. Because they display an extremely rare combination of tropical and glacial climatic effects, they make it possible to study geological history over tens of millions of years.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Caves of Aggtelek Karst and Slovak Karst</site><states>Hungary,Slovakia</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>1624</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2008</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1276</http_url><id_number>1276</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1276.jpg</image_url><iso_code>it,ch</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>46.4983333333</latitude><location></location><longitude>9.8463888889</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Rhaetian Railway in the Albula / Bernina Landscapes, brings together two historic railway lines that cross the Swiss Alps through two passes. Opened in 1904, the Albula line in the north western part of the property is 67 km long. It features an impressive set of structures including 42 tunnels and covered galleries and 144 viaducts and bridges. The 61 km Bernina pass line features 13 tunnels and galleries and 52 viaducts and bridges. The property is exemplary of the use of the railway to overcome the isolation of settlements in the Central Alps early in the 20th century, with a major and lasting socio-economic impact on life in the mountains. It constitutes an outstanding technical, architectural and environmental ensemble and embodies architectural and civil engineering achievements, in harmony with the landscapes through which they pass.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Rhaetian Railway in the Albula / Bernina Landscapes</site><states>Italy,Switzerland</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>1503</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(viii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2003</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1090</http_url><id_number>1090</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1090.jpg</image_url><iso_code>it,ch</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>45.8888888889</latitude><location></location><longitude>8.9138888889</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2010</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The pyramid-shaped, wooded mountain of Monte San Giorgio beside Lake Lugano is regarded as the best fossil record of marine life from the Triassic Period (245–230 million years ago). The sequence records life in a tropical lagoon environment, sheltered and partially separated from the open sea by an offshore reef. Diverse marine life flourished within this lagoon, including reptiles, fish, bivalves, ammonites, echinoderms and crustaceans. Because the lagoon was near land, the remains also include land-based fossils of reptiles, insects and plants, resulting in an extremely rich source of fossils.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Monte San Giorgio</site><states>Italy,Switzerland</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>1643</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2016</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1490</http_url><id_number>1490</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1490.jpg</image_url><iso_code>kz,kg,uz</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>43.7183333333</latitude><location></location><longitude>68.6788888889</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The transnational property is located in the Tien-Shan mountain system, one of the largest mountain ranges in the world. Western Tien-Shan ranges in altitude from 700 to 4,503 m. It features diverse landscapes, which are home to exceptionally rich biodiversity. It is of global importance as a centre of origin for a number of cultivated fruit crops and is home to a great diversity of forest types and unique plant community associations. &lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Western Tien-Shan</site><states>Kazakhstan,Kyrgyzstan,Uzbekistan</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>2079</unique_number></row><row><category>Mixed</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)(vii)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2000</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/985</http_url><id_number>985</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_985.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ls,za</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-29.7652777778</latitude><location></location><longitude>29.1230555556</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2013</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Maloti-Drakensberg Park is a transboundary site composed of the uKhahlamba Drakensberg National Park in South Africa and the Sehlathebe National Park in Lesotho. The site has exceptional natural beauty in its soaring basaltic buttresses, incisive dramatic cutbacks, and golden sandstone ramparts as well as visually spectacular sculptured arches, caves, cliffs, pillars and rock pools. The site's diversity of habitats protects a high level of endemic and globally important plants. The site harbors endangered species such as the Cape vulture (Gyps coprotheres) and the bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus). Lesotho’s Sehlabathebe National Park also harbors the Maloti minnow (Pseudobarbus quathlambae), a critically endangered fish species only found in this park. This spectacular natural site contains many caves and rock-shelters with the largest and most concentrated group of paintings in Africa south of the Sahara. They represent the spiritual life of the San people, who lived in this area over a period of 4,000 years.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Maloti-Drakensberg Park</site><states>Lesotho,South Africa</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>1885</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2000</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/994</http_url><id_number>994</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_994.jpg</image_url><iso_code>lt,ru</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (v):&lt;/em&gt; The Curonian Spit is an outstanding example of a landscape of sand dunes that is under constant threat from natural forces (wind and tide). After disastrous human interventions that menaced its survival the Spit was reclaimed by massive protection and stabilization works begun in the 19th century and still continuing to the present day.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>55.2745800000</latitude><location>Klaipeda Region, Neringa and Klaipeda (Lithuania);&#xd;
&#xd;
Kaliningrad Region, Zelenogradsk District (Russian&#xd;
&#xd;
Federation)</location><longitude>20.9623900000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Human habitation of this elongated sand dune peninsula, 98 km long and 0.4-4 km wide, dates back to prehistoric times. Throughout this period it has been threatened by the natural forces of wind and waves. Its survival to the present day has been made possible only as a result of ceaseless human efforts to combat the erosion of the Spit, dramatically illustrated by continuing stabilisation and reforestation projects.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Curonian Spit</site><states>Lithuania,Russian Federation</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>1158</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2013</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1424</http_url><id_number>1424</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1424.jpg</image_url><iso_code>pl,ua</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>49.5338888889</latitude><location></location><longitude>21.0322222222</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Situated in the eastern fringe of Central Europe, the transnational property numbers a selection of sixteen&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;tserkvas&amp;nbsp;&lt;/em&gt;(churches). They were built of horizontal wooden logs between the 16&lt;sup&gt;th&lt;/sup&gt;&amp;nbsp;and 19&lt;sup&gt;th&lt;/sup&gt;&amp;nbsp;centuries by communities of Orthodox and Greek Catholic faiths. The&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;tserkvas&lt;/em&gt;&amp;nbsp;bear testimony to a distinct building tradition rooted in Orthodox ecclesiastic design interwoven with elements of local tradition, and symbolic references to their communities&amp;rsquo; cosmogony.&amp;nbsp;&amp;nbsp;The&amp;nbsp;&lt;em&gt;tserkva&lt;/em&gt;&lt;em&gt;s&amp;nbsp;&lt;/em&gt;are built on a tri-partite plan surmounted by open quadrilateral or octagonal domes and cupolas. Integral to &lt;em&gt;tserkvas&lt;/em&gt; are iconostasis screens, interior polychrome decorations, and other historic furnishings. Important elements of some &lt;em&gt;tserkvas&lt;/em&gt; include&amp;nbsp;wooden bell towers, churchyards, gatehouses and graveyards.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Wooden &lt;em&gt;Tserkvas&lt;/em&gt; of the Carpathian Region in Poland and Ukraine</site><states>Poland,Ukraine</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>1894</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1998</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/866</http_url><id_number>866</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_866.jpg</image_url><iso_code>pt,es</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>40.6975000000</latitude><location></location><longitude>-6.6611111111</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2010</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The two Prehistoric Rock Art Sites in the Côa Valley (Portugal) and Siega Verde (Spain) are located on the banks of the rivers Agueda and Côa, tributaries of the river Douro, documenting continuous human occupation from the end of the Paleolithic Age. Hundreds of panels with thousands of animal figures (5,000 in Foz Côa and around 440 in Siega Verde) were carved over several millennia, representing the most remarkable open-air ensemble of Paleolithic art on the Iberian Peninsula.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;Côa Valley and Siega Verde provide the best illustration of the iconographic themes and organization of Paleolithic rock art, using the same modes of expression in caves and in the open air, thus contributing to a greater understanding of this artistic phenomenon. Together they form a unique site of the prehistoric era, rich in material evidence of Upper Paleolithic occupation.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Prehistoric Rock Art Sites in the Côa Valley and Siega Verde</site><states>Portugal,Spain</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>1642</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2003</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/769</http_url><id_number>769</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_769.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ru,mn</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ix)&lt;/em&gt;: The closed salt lake system of Uvs Nuur is of international scientific importance because of its climatic and hydrological regimes. Because of the unchanging nature of the nomadic pastoral use of the grasslands within the basin over thousands of years, current research programmes should be able to unravel the rate at which Uvs Nuur (and other smaller lakes within the basin) have become saline (and eutrophic). These processes are on-going and because of its unique geophysical and biological characteristics, the basin has been chosen as an IGBP site for monitoring global warming.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (x)&lt;/em&gt;: The Uvs Nuur site has a large range of ecosystems, representing the major biomes of eastern Eurasia, with a number of endemic plants. Although the basin is inhabited and has been used for nomadic pastoralism for thousands of years, the mountains, forests, steppes and deserts are extremely important habitats for a wide range of wild animals, many of them threatened or endangered. The steppe ecosystem supports a rich diversity of birds and the deserts a number of rare gerbil, jerboas and the marbled polecat. The mountains at the western end of the basin are important refuges for the globally threatened snow leopard, mountain sheep (argali) and the Asiatic ibex. Uvs Nuur itself is an important habitat for waterfowl as well as for birds migrating south from Siberia.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>50.2750000000</latitude><location>Uvs Aimag, Zavhan Aimag, Huvsgul Aimag (Mongolia); Mongun-Taiga Kojuun, Ovur Kojuun, Tes-Khem Kojuun, Ersin Kojuun (Tuva)</location><longitude>92.7197222200</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Uvs Nuur Basin (1,068,853 ha), is the northernmost of the enclosed basins of Central Asia. It takes its name from Uvs Nuur Lake, a large, shallow and very saline lake, important for migrating birds, waterfowl and seabirds. The site is made up of twelve protected areas representing the major biomes of eastern Eurasia. The steppe ecosystem supports a rich diversity of birds and the desert is home to a number of rare gerbil, jerboas and the marbled polecat. The mountains are an important refuge for the globally endangered snow leopard, mountain sheep (argali) and the Asiatic ibex.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Uvs Nuur Basin</site><states>Russian Federation,Mongolia</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>909</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2017</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1448</http_url><id_number>1448</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1448.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ru,mn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>49.9302222222</latitude><location></location><longitude>115.4254444444</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Shared between Mongolia and the Russian Federation, this site is an outstanding example of the Daurian Steppe eco-region, which extends from eastern Mongolia into Russian Siberia and northeastern China. Cyclical climate changes, with distinct dry and wet periods lead to a wide diversity of species and ecosystems of global significance. The different types of steppe ecosystems represented, such as grassland and forest, as well as lakes and wetlands serve as habitats for rare species of fauna, such as the White-naped crane, Great Bustard, Relict Gull and Swan goose, as well as millions of vulnerable, endangered or threatened migratory birds. It is also a critical site on the transboundary migration path for the Mongolian gazelle.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Landscapes of Dauria</site><states>Russian Federation,Mongolia</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>2150</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2012</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1313</http_url><id_number>1313</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1313.jpg</image_url><iso_code>si,es</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>38.7752777778</latitude><location></location><longitude>-4.8388888889</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The property includes the mining sites of Almad&amp;eacute;n (Spain), where mercury (quicksilver) has been extracted since antiquity, and Idrija (Slovenia), where mercury was first found in AD1490. The Spanish property includes buildings relating to its mining history, including Retamar Castle, religious buildings and traditional dwellings. The site in Idrija notably features mercury stores and infrastructure, as well as miners&amp;rsquo; living quarters, and a miners&amp;rsquo; theatre. The sites bear testimony to the intercontinental trade in mercury which generated important exchanges between Europe and America over the centuries. Together they represent the two largest mercury mines in the world, operational until recent times.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Heritage of Mercury. Almadén and Idrija</site><states>Slovenia,Spain</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>1841</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(viii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1989</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/509</http_url><id_number>509</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_509.jpg</image_url><iso_code>zm,zw</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-17.9245300000</latitude><location>Livingstone District of Southern Province of the Republic of Zambia and Hwange District of Matabeleland North Province of Zimbabwe</location><longitude>25.8553900000</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;These are among the most spectacular waterfalls in the world. The Zambezi River, which is more than 2 km wide at this point, plunges noisily down a series of basalt gorges and raises an iridescent mist that can be seen more than 20 km away.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Mosi-oa-Tunya / Victoria Falls</site><states>Zambia,Zimbabwe</states><transboundary>1</transboundary><unique_number>593</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger>Y 2003</danger><date_inscribed>2003</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/208</http_url><id_number>208</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_208.jpg</image_url><iso_code>af</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (i):&lt;/em&gt; The Buddha statues and the cave art in Bamiyan Valley are an outstanding representation of the Gandharan school in Buddhist art in the Central Asian region.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii)&lt;/em&gt; : The artistic and architectural remains of Bamiyan Valley, and an important Buddhist centre on the Silk Road, are an exceptional testimony to the interchange of Indian, Hellenistic, Roman, Sasanian influences as the basis for the development of a particular artistic expression in the Gandharan school. To this can be added the Islamic influence in a later period.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii):&lt;/em&gt; The Bamiyan Valley bears an exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition in the Central Asian region, which has disappeared.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; The Bamiyan Valley is an outstanding example of a cultural landscape which illustrates a significant period in Buddhism.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (vi):&lt;/em&gt; The Bamiyan Valley is the most monumental expression of the western Buddhism. It was an important centre of pilgrimage over many centuries. Due to their symbolic values, the monuments have suffered at different times of their existence, including the deliberate destruction in 2001, which shook the whole world.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>34.8469400000</latitude><location>Bamiyan Province, Bamiyan District</location><longitude>67.8252500000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The cultural landscape and archaeological remains of the Bamiyan Valley represent the artistic and religious developments which from the 1st to the 13th centuries characterized ancient Bakhtria, integrating various cultural influences into the Gandhara school of Buddhist art. The area contains numerous Buddhist monastic ensembles and sanctuaries, as well as fortified edifices from the Islamic period. The site is also testimony to the tragic destruction by the Taliban of the two standing Buddha statues, which shook the world in March 2001.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley</site><states>Afghanistan</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>230</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger>Y 2002</danger><date_inscribed>2002</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/211</http_url><id_number>211</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_211.jpg</image_url><iso_code>af</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; The innovative architecture and decoration of the Minaret of Jam played a significant role in the development of the arts and architecture of the Indian sub-continent and beyond.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii): &lt;/em&gt;The Minaret of Jam and its associated archaeological remains constitute exceptional testimony to the power and quality of the Ghurid civilization that dominated its region in the 12th and 13th centuries.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv): &lt;/em&gt;The Minaret of Jam is an outstanding example of Islamic architecture and ornamentation in this region and played a significant role in their further dissemination.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>34.3964166667</latitude><location>Shahrak District, Ghur Province</location><longitude>64.5158888889</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The 65m-tall Minaret of Jam is a graceful, soaring structure, dating back to the 12th century. Covered in elaborate brickwork with a blue tile inscription at the top, it is noteworthy for the quality of its architecture and decoration, which represent the culmination of an architectural and artistic tradition in this region. Its impact is heightened by its dramatic setting, a deep river valley between towering mountains in the heart of the Ghur province.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam</site><states>Afghanistan</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>234</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1992</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/570</http_url><id_number>570</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_570.jpg</image_url><iso_code>al</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>39.7511111100</latitude><location>District of Sarandë, County of Vlorë</location><longitude>20.0261111100</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>1999</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Inhabited since prehistoric times, Butrint has been the site of a Greek colony, a Roman city and a bishopric. Following a period of prosperity under Byzantine administration, then a brief occupation by the Venetians, the city was abandoned in the late Middle Ages after marshes formed in the area. The present archaeological site is a repository of ruins representing each period in the city&amp;rsquo;s development.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Butrint</site><states>Albania</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1563</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2005</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/569</http_url><id_number>569</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_569.jpg</image_url><iso_code>al</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>40.0694444400</latitude><location></location><longitude>20.1333333300</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2008</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Berat and Gjirokastra are inscribed as rare examples of an architectural character typical of the Ottoman period. Located in central Albania, Berat bears witness to the coexistence of various religious and cultural communities down the centuries. It features a castle, locally known as the Kala, most of which was built in the 13th century, although its origins date back to the 4th century BC. The citadel area numbers many Byzantine churches, mainly from the 13th century, as well as several mosques built under the Ottoman era which&amp;nbsp;began&amp;nbsp;in 1417. Gjirokastra, in the Drinos river valley in southern Albania, features a series of outstanding two-story&amp;nbsp;houses which were developed in the 17th century. The town also retains a bazaar, an 18th-century mosque and two churches of the same period.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic Centres of Berat and Gjirokastra </site><states>Albania</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1590</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1980</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/102</http_url><id_number>102</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_102.jpg</image_url><iso_code>dz</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>35.8184400000</latitude><location>Commune of Maadid "Bechara", Wilaya (province) of M'Sila</location><longitude>4.7868400000</longitude><region>Arab States</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;In a mountainous site of extraordinary beauty, the ruins of the first capital of the Hammadid emirs, founded in 1007 and demolished in 1152, provide an authentic picture of a fortified Muslim city. The mosque, whose prayer room has 13 aisles with eight bays, is one of the largest in Algeria.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Al Qal'a of Beni Hammad</site><states>Algeria</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>111</unique_number></row><row><category>Mixed</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)(vii)(viii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1982</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/179</http_url><id_number>179</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_179.jpg</image_url><iso_code>dz</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>25.5000000000</latitude><location>Wilayas (provinces) of Illizi and Tamanghasset</location><longitude>9.0000000000</longitude><region>Arab States</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Located in a strange lunar landscape of great geological interest, this site has one of the most important groupings of prehistoric cave art in the world. More than 15,000 drawings and engravings record the climatic changes, the animal migrations and the evolution of human life on the edge of the Sahara from 6000 BC to the first centuries of the present era. The geological formations are of outstanding scenic interest, with eroded sandstones forming ‘forests of rock’.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Tassili n'Ajjer</site><states>Algeria</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>198</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1982</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/188</http_url><id_number>188</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_188.jpg</image_url><iso_code>dz</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>32.4833300000</latitude><location>Wilaya (province) of Ghardaïa</location><longitude>3.6833300000</longitude><region>Arab States</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;A traditional human habitat, created in the 10th century by the Ibadites around their five &lt;em&gt;ksour&lt;/em&gt; (fortified cities), has been preserved intact in the M’Zab valley. Simple, functional and perfectly adapted to the environment, the architecture of M’Zab was designed for community living, while respecting the structure of the family. It is a source of inspiration for today’s urban planners.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>M'Zab Valley</site><states>Algeria</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>209</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1982</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/191</http_url><id_number>191</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_191.jpg</image_url><iso_code>dz</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>36.3205600000</latitude><location>Wilaya (province) of Setif</location><longitude>5.7366700000</longitude><region>Arab States</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Situated 900 m above sea-level, Dj&amp;eacute;mila, or Cuicul, with its forum, temples, basilicas, triumphal arches and houses, is an interesting example of Roman town planning adapted to a mountain location.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Djémila</site><states>Algeria</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>212</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger>P 2002-2006</danger><date_inscribed>1982</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/193</http_url><id_number>193</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_193.jpg</image_url><iso_code>dz</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>36.5500000000</latitude><location>Commune and Wilaya (province) of Tipasa</location><longitude>2.3833333330</longitude><region>Arab States</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;On the shores of the Mediterranean, Tipasa was an ancient Punic trading-post conquered by Rome and turned into a strategic base for the conquest of the kingdoms of Mauritania. It comprises a unique group of Phoenician, Roman, palaeochristian and Byzantine ruins alongside indigenous monuments such as the Kbor er Roumia, the great royal mausoleum of Mauretania.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Tipasa</site><states>Algeria</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>214</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1982</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/194</http_url><id_number>194</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_194.jpg</image_url><iso_code>dz</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>35.4841666667</latitude><location>Commune of Timgad, Wilaya (province) of Batna</location><longitude>6.4688611111</longitude><region>Arab States</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Timgad lies on the northern slopes of the Aurès mountains and was created &lt;em&gt;ex nihilo&lt;/em&gt; as a military colony by the Emperor Trajan in AD 100. With its square enclosure and orthogonal design based on the &lt;em&gt;cardo&lt;/em&gt; and &lt;em&gt;decumanus&lt;/em&gt;, the two perpendicular routes running through the city, it is an excellent example of Roman town planning.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Timgad</site><states>Algeria</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>215</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1992</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/565</http_url><id_number>565</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_565.jpg</image_url><iso_code>dz</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>36.7833300000</latitude><location>City and Wilaya (province) of Algiers</location><longitude>3.0602800000</longitude><region>Arab States</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Kasbah is a unique kind of medina, or Islamic city. It stands in one of the finest coastal sites on the Mediterranean, overlooking the islands where a Carthaginian trading-post was established in the 4th century BC. There are the remains of the citadel, old mosques and Ottoman-style palaces as well as the remains of a traditional urban structure associated with a deep-rooted sense of community.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Kasbah of Algiers</site><states>Algeria</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>667</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2004</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1160</http_url><id_number>1160</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1160.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ad</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (v):&lt;/em&gt; The Madriu-Perafita-Claror Valley is a microcosm of the way its inhabitants have harvested the scarce resources of the high Pyrenees over the past millennia to create a sustainable living environment in harmony with the mountain landscape. The Valley is a reflection of an ancient communal system of land management that has survived for over 700 years.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>42.4947222200</latitude><location>Part of Communes of Encamp, Andorra la Vella, Saint Julia de Loria and Escaldes-Engordany</location><longitude>1.5955555560</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The cultural landscape of Madriu-Perafita-Claror Valley offers a microcosmic perspective of the way people have harvested the resources of the high Pyrenees over millennia. Its dramatic glacial landscapes of craggy cliffs and glaciers, with high open pastures and steep wooded valleys, covers an area of 4,247 ha, 9% of the total area of the principality. It reflects past changes in climate, economic fortune and social systems, as well as the persistence of pastoralism and a strong mountain culture, notably the survival of a communal land-ownership system dating back to the 13th century. The site features houses, notably summer settlements, terraced fields, stone tracks and evidence of iron smelting.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Madriu-Perafita-Claror Valley</site><states>Andorra</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1487</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2017</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1511</http_url><id_number>1511</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1511.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ao</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-6.2688888889</latitude><location></location><longitude>14.2497222222</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The town of Mbanza Kongo, located on a plateau at an altitude of 570 m, was the political and spiritual capital of the Kingdom of Kongo, one of the largest constituted states in Southern Africa from the 14th to 19th centuries. The historical area grew around the royal residence, the customary court and the holy tree, as well as the royal funeral places. When the Portuguese arrived in the 15th century they added stone buildings constructed in accordance with European methods to the existing urban conurbation built in local materials. Mbanza Kongo illustrates, more than anywhere in sub-Saharan Africa, the profound changes caused by the introduction of Christianity and the arrival of the Portuguese into Central Africa.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Mbanza Kongo, Vestiges of the Capital of the former Kingdom of Kongo</site><states>Angola</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2128</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2016</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1499</http_url><id_number>1499</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1499.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ag</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>17.0069444444</latitude><location></location><longitude>-61.7616666667</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The site consists of a group of Georgian-style naval buildings and structures, set within a walled enclosure. The natural environment of this side of the island of Antigua, with its deep, narrow bays surrounded by highlands, offered shelter from hurricanes and was ideal for repairing ships. The construction of the Dockyard by the British navy would not have been possible without the labour of generations of enslaved Africans since the end of the 18th century. Its aim was to protect the interests of sugar cane planters at a time when European powers were competing for control of the Eastern Caribbean.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Antigua Naval Dockyard and Related Archaeological Sites</site><states>Antigua and Barbuda</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2086</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(viii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1981</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/145</http_url><id_number>145</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_145.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ar</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-50.0000000000</latitude><location>Santa Cruz</location><longitude>-73.2494400000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Los Glaciares National Park is an area of exceptional natural beauty, with rugged, towering mountains and numerous glacial lakes, including Lake Argentino, which is 160 km long. At its farthest end, three glaciers meet to dump their effluvia into the milky grey glacial water, launching massive igloo icebergs into the lake with thunderous splashes.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Los Glaciares National Park</site><states>Argentina</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>160</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1984</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/303</http_url><id_number>303</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_303.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ar</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-25.5180555600</latitude><location>Province: Misiones - Region: Nord-Est</location><longitude>-54.1333333300</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The semicircular waterfall at the heart of this site is some 80 m high and 2,700 m in diameter and is situated on a basaltic line spanning the border between Argentina and Brazil. Made up of many cascades producing vast sprays of water, it is one of the most spectacular waterfalls in the world. The surrounding subtropical rainforest has over 2,000 species of vascular plants and is home to the typical wildlife of the region: tapirs, giant anteaters, howler monkeys, ocelots, jaguars and caymans.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Iguazu National Park</site><states>Argentina</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>340</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1999</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/936</http_url><id_number>936</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_936.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ar</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii):&lt;/em&gt; The Cueva de las Manos contains an outstanding collection of prehistoric rock art which bears witness to the culture of the earliest human societies in South America.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>-47.1500000000</latitude><location>Patagonia Region, Santa Cruz Province</location><longitude>-70.6666666700</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Cueva de las Manos, R&amp;iacute;o Pinturas, contains an exceptional assemblage of cave art, executed between 13,000 and 9,500 years ago. It takes its name (Cave of the Hands) from the stencilled outlines of human hands in the cave, but there are also many depictions of animals, such as guanacos (&lt;em&gt;Lama guanicoe&lt;/em&gt; ), still commonly found in the region, as well as hunting scenes. The people responsible for the paintings may have been the ancestors of the historic hunter-gatherer communities of Patagonia found by European settlers in the 19th century.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Cueva de las Manos, Río Pinturas</site><states>Argentina</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1091</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1999</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/937</http_url><id_number>937</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_937.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ar</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (x):&lt;/em&gt; Peninsula Valdés contains very important and significant natural habitats for the in-situ conservation of several threatened species of outstanding universal value, and specifically its globally important concentration of breeding southern right whales, which is an endangered species. It is also important because of the breeding populations of southern elephant seals and southern sea lions. The area exhibits an exceptional example of adaptation of hunting techniques by the orca to the local coastal conditions.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>-42.5000000000</latitude><location></location><longitude>-64.0000000000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Península Valdés in Patagonia is a site of global significance for the conservation of marine mammals. It is home to an important breeding population of the endangered southern right whale as well as important breeding populations of southern elephant seals and southern sea lions. The orcas in this area have developed a unique hunting strategy to adapt to local coastal conditions.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Península Valdés</site><states>Argentina</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1092</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(viii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2000</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/966</http_url><id_number>966</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_966.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ar</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (viii):&lt;/em&gt; The site contains a complete sequence of fossiliferous continental sediments representing the entire Triassic Period (45 million years) of geological history. No other place in the world has a fossil record comparable to that of Ischigualasto-Talampaya which reveals the evolution of vertebrate life and the nature of palaeoenvironments in the Triassic Period.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>-30.0000000000</latitude><location>Provinces of San Juan and La Rioja</location><longitude>-68.0000000000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;These two contiguous parks, extending over 275,300 ha in the desert region on the western border of the Sierra Pampeanas of central Argentina, contain the most complete continental fossil record known from the Triassic Period (245-208 million years ago). Six geological formations in the parks contain fossils of a wide range of ancestors of mammals, dinosaurs and plants revealing the evolution of vertebrates and the nature of palaeo-environments in the Triassic Period.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Ischigualasto / Talampaya Natural Parks</site><states>Argentina</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1130</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2000</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/995</http_url><id_number>995</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_995.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ar</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; The Jesuit buildings and ensembles of C&amp;oacute;rdoba and the estancias are exceptional examples of the fusion of European and indigenous values and cultures during a seminal period in South America.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; The religious, social, and economic experiment carried out in South America for over 150 years by the Society of Jesus produced a unique form of material expression, which is illustrated by the Jesuit buildings and ensembles of C&amp;oacute;rdoba and the estancias.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>-31.4205600000</latitude><location>Province of Cordoba</location><longitude>-64.1911100000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Jesuit Block in C&amp;oacute;rdoba, heart of the former Jesuit Province of Paraguay, contains the core buildings of the Jesuit system: the university, the church and residence of the Society of Jesus, and the college. Along with the five estancias, or farming estates, they contain religious and secular buildings, which illustrate the unique religious, social, and economic experiment carried out in the world for a period of over 150 years in the 17th and 18th centuries.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Jesuit Block and Estancias of Córdoba</site><states>Argentina</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1159</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2003</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1116</http_url><id_number>1116</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1116.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ar</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; The Quebrada de Humahuaca valley has been used over the past 10,000 years as a crucial passage for the transport of people and ideas from the high Andean lands to the plains.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criteria (iv) and (v):&lt;/em&gt; The Quebrada de Humahuaca valley reflects the way its strategic position has engendered settlement, agriculture and trade. Its distinctive pre-Hispanic and pre-Incan settlements, as a group with their associated field systems, form a dramatic addition to the landscape and one that can certainly be called outstanding.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>-23.1998611100</latitude><location>Province of Juyuy</location><longitude>-65.3488611100</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Quebrada de Humahuaca follows the line of a major cultural route, the Camino Inca, along the spectacular valley of the Rio Grande, from its source in the cold high desert plateau of the High Andean lands to its confluence with the Rio Leone some 150 km to the south. The valley shows substantial evidence of its use as a major trade route over the past 10,000 years. It features visible traces of prehistoric hunter-gatherer communities, of the Inca Empire (15th to 16th centuries) and of the fight for independence in the 19th and 20th centuries.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Quebrada de Humahuaca</site><states>Argentina</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1295</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2017</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1526</http_url><id_number>1526</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1526.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ar</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-42.8528000000</latitude><location></location><longitude>-71.8728000000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Los Alerces National Park is located in the Andes of northern Patagonia and its western boundary  coincides with the Chilean border. Successive glaciations have moulded the landscape in the region creating spectacular features such as moraines, glacial cirques and clear-water lakes. The vegetation is dominated by dense temperate forests, which give way to alpine meadows higher up under the rocky Andean peaks. A highly distinctive and emblematic feature is its alerce forest; the globally threatened Alerce tree is the second longest living tree species in the world (&amp;gt;3,600 years). The Alerce forest in the property is in an excellent state of conservation. The property is vital for the protection of some of the last portions of continuous Patagonian Forest in an almost pristine state and is the habitat for a number of endemic and threatened species of flora and fauna.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Los Alerces National Park</site><states>Argentina</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2172</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1996</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/777</http_url><id_number>777</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_777.jpg</image_url><iso_code>am</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee decided to inscribe the Monastery of Haghpat on the basis of cultural &lt;em&gt;criteria (ii) and (iv)&lt;/em&gt; considering that it is of outstanding universal value and an exceptional example of ecclesiastical architecture that developed in Armenia in the 10th to 13th centuries which is unique by virtue of its blending of elements of both Byzantine church architecture and the traditional vernacular building style of this region.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>41.0950000000</latitude><location>Villages of Haghpat and Sanahin, Lorri Region</location><longitude>44.7102800000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2000</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;These two Byzantine monasteries in the Tumanian region from the period of prosperity during the Kiurikian dynasty (10th to 13th century) were important centres of learning. Sanahin was renown for its school of illuminators and calligraphers. The two monastic complexes represent the highest flowering of Armenian religious architecture, whose unique style developed from a blending of elements of Byzantine ecclesiastical architecture and the traditional vernacular architecture of the Caucasian region.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Monasteries of Haghpat and Sanahin</site><states>Armenia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>920</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2000</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/960</http_url><id_number>960</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_960.jpg</image_url><iso_code>am</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; The monastery of Geghard, with its remarkable rock-cut churches and tombs, is an exceptionally well preserved and complete example of medieval Armenian monastic architecture and decorative art, with many innovatory features which had a profound influence on subsequent developments in the region.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>40.1588900000</latitude><location>Kotayk' Region, near the village of Goght</location><longitude>44.7966700000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The monastery of Geghard contains a number of churches and tombs, most of them cut into the rock, which illustrate the very peak of Armenian medieval architecture. The complex of medieval buildings is set into a landscape of great natural beauty, surrounded by towering cliffs at the entrance to the Azat Valley.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Monastery of Geghard and the Upper Azat Valley</site><states>Armenia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1124</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2000</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1011</http_url><id_number>1011</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1011.jpg</image_url><iso_code>am</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; The developments in ecclesiastical architecture represented in an outstanding manner by the churches at Echmiatsin and the archaeological site of Zvartnots had a profound influence on church design over a wide region.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii):&lt;/em&gt; The churches at Echmiatsin and the archaeological site of Zvartnots vividly depict both the spirituality and the innovatory artistic achievement of the Armenian Church from its foundation.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>40.1593100000</latitude><location>Armavir Region</location><longitude>44.2951400000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The cathedral and churches of Echmiatsin and the archaeological remains at Zvartnots graphically illustrate the evolution and development of the Armenian central-domed cross-hall type of church, which exerted a profound influence on architectural and artistic development in the region.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Cathedral and Churches of Echmiatsin and the Archaeological Site of Zvartnots</site><states>Armenia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1181</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(viii)(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1981</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/154</http_url><id_number>154</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_154.jpg</image_url><iso_code>au</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-18.2861111100</latitude><location>Off the east coast of the Queensland mainland</location><longitude>147.7000000000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Great Barrier Reef is a site of remarkable variety and beauty on the north-east coast of Australia. It contains the world’s largest collection of coral reefs, with 400 types of coral, 1,500 species of fish and 4,000 types of mollusc. It also holds great scientific interest as the habitat of species such as the dugong (‘sea cow’) and the large green turtle, which are threatened with extinction.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Great Barrier Reef</site><states>Australia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>172</unique_number></row><row><category>Mixed</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(viii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1981</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/167</http_url><id_number>167</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_167.jpg</image_url><iso_code>au</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-34.0000000000</latitude><location>Balranald and Wentworth shires, New South Wales</location><longitude>143.0000000000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The fossil remains of a series of lakes and sand formations that date from the Pleistocene can be found in this region, together with archaeological evidence of human occupation dating from 45–60,000 years ago. It is a unique landmark in the study of human evolution on the Australian continent. Several well-preserved fossils of giant marsupials have also been found here.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Willandra Lakes Region</site><states>Australia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>185</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1982</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/186</http_url><id_number>186</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_186.jpg</image_url><iso_code>au</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-31.5655555600</latitude><location>New South Wales</location><longitude>159.0883333000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;A remarkable example of isolated oceanic islands, born of volcanic activity more than 2,000 m under the sea, these islands boast a spectacular topography and are home to numerous endemic species, especially birds.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Lord Howe Island Group</site><states>Australia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>206</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(viii)(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1986</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/368</http_url><id_number>368</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_368.jpg</image_url><iso_code>au</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-28.2500000000</latitude><location>States of New South Wales and Queensland</location><longitude>150.0500000000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>1994</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This site, comprising several protected areas, is situated predominantly along the Great Escarpment on Australia&amp;rsquo;s east coast. The outstanding geological features displayed around shield volcanic craters and the high number of rare and threatened rainforest species are of international significance for science and conservation.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Gondwana Rainforests of Australia</site><states>Australia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>422</unique_number></row><row><category>Mixed</category><criteria_txt>(v)(vi)(vii)(viii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1987</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/447</http_url><id_number>447</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_447.jpg</image_url><iso_code>au</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-25.3333333300</latitude><location>Northern territory</location><longitude>131.0000000000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>1994</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This park, formerly called Uluru (Ayers Rock – Mount Olga) National Park, features spectacular geological formations that dominate the vast red sandy plain of central Australia. Uluru, an immense monolith, and Kata Tjuta, the rock domes located west of Uluru, form part of the traditional belief system of one of the oldest human societies in the world. The traditional owners of Uluru-Kata Tjuta are the Anangu Aboriginal people.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Ulu&lt;U&gt;r&lt;/U&gt;u-Kata Tju&lt;U&gt;t&lt;/U&gt;a National Park</site><states>Australia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>519</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(viii)(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1988</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/486</http_url><id_number>486</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_486.jpg</image_url><iso_code>au</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-15.6500000000</latitude><location></location><longitude>144.9666667000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This area, which stretches along the north-east coast of Australia for some 450 km, is made up largely of tropical rainforests. This biotope offers a particularly extensive and varied array of plants, as well as marsupials and singing birds, along with other rare and endangered animals and plant species.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Wet Tropics of Queensland</site><states>Australia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>565</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(viii)(ix)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1997</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/577</http_url><id_number>577</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_577.jpg</image_url><iso_code>au</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee inscribed this property under &lt;em&gt;criteria (viii) &lt;/em&gt;and &lt;em&gt;(ix)&lt;/em&gt;. It noted that this site is the only volcanically active sub-Antarctic island and illustrates ongoing geomorphic processes and glacial dynamics in the coastal and submarine environment and sub-Antarctic flora and fauna, with no record of alien species. The Committee repeated its request by the sixteenth session for further documentation on the marine resources of the site.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>-53.1000000000</latitude><location>Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands</location><longitude>73.5000000000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Heard Island and McDonald Islands are located in the Southern Ocean, approximately 1,700 km from the Antarctic continent and 4,100 km south-west of Perth. As the only volcanically active subantarctic islands they &amp;lsquo;open a window into the earth&amp;rsquo;, thus providing the opportunity to observe ongoing geomorphic processes and glacial dynamics. The distinctive conservation value of Heard and McDonald &amp;ndash; one of the world&amp;rsquo;s rare pristine island ecosystems &amp;ndash; lies in the complete absence of alien plants and animals, as well as human impact.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Heard and McDonald Islands</site><states>Australia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>683</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(viii)(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1991</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/578</http_url><id_number>578</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_578.jpg</image_url><iso_code>au</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-25.4861111100</latitude><location>State of Western Australia</location><longitude>113.4361111000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;At the most westerly point of the Australian continent, Shark Bay, with its islands and the land surrounding it, has three exceptional natural features: its vast sea-grass beds, which are the largest (4,800 km2) and richest in the world; its dugong (&amp;lsquo;sea cow&amp;rsquo;) population; and its stromatolites (colonies of algae which form hard, dome-shaped deposits and are among the oldest forms of life on earth). Shark Bay is also home to five species of endangered mammals.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Shark Bay, Western Australia</site><states>Australia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>684</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(viii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1997</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/629</http_url><id_number>629</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_629.jpg</image_url><iso_code>au</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee decided that the site provides an unique example of exposure of the ocean crust above the sea level and of geological evidence for sea-floor spreading, and is an exposure of the oceanic plate boundary between the Pacific and Australian/Indian plates, exposed with active faults and ongoing tectonic movements.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>-54.5947222200</latitude><location>State of Tasmania</location><longitude>158.8955556000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Macquarie Island (34 km long x 5 km wide) is an oceanic island in the Southern Ocean, lying 1,500 km south-east of Tasmania and approximately halfway between Australia and the Antarctic continent. The island is the exposed crest of the undersea Macquarie Ridge, raised to its present position where the Indo-Australian tectonic plate meets the Pacific plate. It is a site of major geoconservation significance, being the only place on earth where rocks from the earth’s mantle (6 km below the ocean floor) are being actively exposed above sea-level. These unique exposures include excellent examples of pillow basalts and other extrusive rocks.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Macquarie Island</site><states>Australia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>747</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(viii)(ix)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1992</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/630</http_url><id_number>630</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_630.jpg</image_url><iso_code>au</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-25.2166666700</latitude><location>State of Queensland</location><longitude>153.1333333000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Fraser Island lies just off the east coast of Australia. At 122 km long, it is the largest sand island in the world. Majestic remnants of tall rainforest growing on sand and half the world’s perched freshwater dune lakes are found inland from the beach. The combination of shifting sand-dunes, tropical rainforests and lakes makes it an exceptional site.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Fraser Island</site><states>Australia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>748</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(viii)(ix)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1994</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/698</http_url><id_number>698</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_698.jpg</image_url><iso_code>au</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-19.0833333300</latitude><location>States of Queensland and South Australia</location><longitude>138.7166667000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Riversleigh and Naracoorte, situated in the north and south respectively of eastern Australia, are among the world’s 10 greatest fossil sites. They are a superb illustration of the key stages of evolution of Australia’s unique fauna.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Australian Fossil Mammal Sites (Riversleigh / Naracoorte)</site><states>Australia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>826</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2000</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/917</http_url><id_number>917</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_917.jpg</image_url><iso_code>au</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criteria (ix) and (x):&lt;/em&gt; Australia&amp;rsquo;s eucalypt vegetation is worthy of recognition as of outstanding universal value, because of its adaptability and evolution in post-Gondwana isolation. The site contains a wide and balanced representation of eucalypt habitats from wet and dry sclerophyll, mallee heathlands, as well as localised swamps, wetlands, and grassland. 90 eucalypt taxa (13% of the global total) and representation of all four groups of eucalypts occur. There is also a high level of endemism with 114 endemic taxa found in the area as well as 120 nationally rare and threatened plant taxa. The site hosts several evolutionary relic species (Wollemia, Microstrobos, Acrophyllum) which have persisted in highly restricted microsites.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>-33.7000000000</latitude><location></location><longitude>150.0000000000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Greater Blue Mountains Area consists of 1.03 million ha of sandstone plateaux, escarpments and gorges dominated by temperate eucalypt forest. The site, comprised of eight protected areas, is noted for its representation of the evolutionary adaptation and diversification of the eucalypts in post-Gondwana isolation on the Australian continent. Ninety-one eucalypt taxa occur within the Greater Blue Mountains Area which is also outstanding for its exceptional expression of the structural and ecological diversity of the eucalypts associated with its wide range of habitats. The site provides significant representation of Australia's biodiversity with ten percent of the vascular flora as well as significant numbers of rare or threatened species, including endemic and evolutionary relict species, such as the Wollemi pine, which have persisted in highly-restricted microsites.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Greater Blue Mountains Area</site><states>Australia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1071</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(viii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2003</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1094</http_url><id_number>1094</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1094.jpg</image_url><iso_code>au</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (viii):&lt;/em&gt; Earth&amp;rsquo;s history and geological features The claim to outstanding universal geological value is made for the Bungle Bungle Range. The Bungle Bungles are, by far, the most outstanding example of cone karst in sandstones anywhere in the world and owe their existence and uniqueness to several interacting geological, biological, erosional and climatic phenomena. The sandstone karst of PNP is of great scientific importance in demonstrating so clearly the process of cone karst formation on sandstone - a phenomenon recognised by geomorphologists only over the past 25 years and still incompletely understood, despite recently renewed interest and research. The Bungle Bungle Ranges of PNP also display to an exceptional degree evidence of geomorphic processes of dissolution, weathering and erosion in the evolution of landforms under a savannah climatic regime within an ancient, stable sedimentary landscape. IUCN considers that the nominated site meets this criterion.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (vii):&lt;/em&gt; Superlative natural phenomena or natural beauty and aesthetic importance Although PNP has been widely known in Australia only during the past 20 years and it remains relatively inaccessible, it has become recognised internationally for its exceptional natural beauty. The prime scenic attraction is the extraordinary array of banded, beehive-shaped cone towers comprising the Bungle Bungle Range. These have become emblematic of the park and are internationally renowned among Australia&amp;rsquo;s natural attractions. The dramatically sculptured structures, unrivalled in their scale, extent, grandeur and diversity of forms anywhere in the world, undergo remarkable seasonal variation in appearance, including striking colour transition following rain. The intricate maze of towers is accentuated by sinuous, narrow, sheer-sided gorges lined with majestic Livistona fan palms. These and the soaring cliffs up to 250 m high are cut by seasonal waterfalls and pools, creating the major tourist attractions in the park, with evocative names such as Echidna Chasm, and Frog Hole, Piccaninny and Cathedral Gorges. The diversity of landforms and ecosystems elsewhere in the park are representative of the larger region, and lack a unique aesthetic quality, but provide a sympathetic visual buffer for the massif. The powerful aesthetic experience of the Bungle Bungles has aroused huge interest among the public, and the ranges figure prominently in national and international advertising of Australia&amp;rsquo;s tourist attractions, matching the prominence of the Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park. Photographers and travel writers include the Bungle Bungles among the world&amp;rsquo;s natural wonders, some describing them as Australia&amp;rsquo;s equivalent of the Grand Canyon.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>-17.5000000000</latitude><location>Western Australia</location><longitude>128.5000000000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The 239,723 ha Purnululu National Park is located in the State of Western Australia. It contains the deeply dissected Bungle Bungle Range composed of Devonian-age quartz sandstone eroded over a period of 20 million years into a series of beehive-shaped towers or cones, whose steeply sloping surfaces are distinctly marked by regular horizontal bands of dark-grey cyanobacterial crust (single-celled photosynthetic organisms). These outstanding examples of cone karst owe their existence and uniqueness to several interacting geological, biological, erosional and climatic phenomena.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Purnululu National Park</site><states>Australia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1272</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)</criteria_txt><danger>0</danger><date_inscribed>2007</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/166</http_url><id_number>166</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_166.jpg</image_url><iso_code>au</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-33.8566666667</latitude><location>New South Wales</location><longitude>151.2152777777</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Inaugurated in 1973, the Sydney Opera House is a great architectural work of the 20th century that brings together multiple strands of creativity and innovation in both architectural form and structural design. A great urban sculpture set in a remarkable waterscape, at the tip of a peninsula projecting into Sydney Harbour, the building has had an enduring influence on architecture. The Sydney Opera House comprises three groups of interlocking vaulted &amp;lsquo;shells&amp;rsquo; which roof two main performance halls and a restaurant. These shell-structures are set upon a vast platform and are surrounded by terrace areas that function as pedestrian concourses. In 1957, when the project of the Sydney Opera House was awarded by an international jury to Danish architect J&amp;oslash;rn Utzon, it marked a radically new approach to construction.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Sydney Opera House</site><states>Australia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1457</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2010</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1306</http_url><id_number>1306</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1306.jpg</image_url><iso_code>au</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-33.3783333333</latitude><location></location><longitude>150.9944444444</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The property includes a selection of eleven penal sites, among the thousands established by the British Empire on Australian soil in the 18&lt;sup&gt;th&lt;/sup&gt; and 19&lt;sup&gt;th&lt;/sup&gt; centuries. The sites are spread across Australia, from Fremantle in Western Australia to Kingston and Arthur's Vale on Norfolk Island in the east; and from areas around Sydney in New South Wales in the north, to sites located in Tasmania in the south. Around 166,000 men, women and children were sent to Australia over 80 years between 1787 and 1868, condemned by British justice to transportation to the convict colonies. Each of the sites had a specific purpose, in terms both of punitive imprisonment and of rehabilitation through forced labour to help build the colony. The Australian Convict Sites presents the best surviving examples of large-scale convict transportation and the colonial expansion of European powers through the presence and labour of convicts.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Australian Convict Sites</site><states>Australia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1648</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2004</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1131</http_url><id_number>1131</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1131.jpg</image_url><iso_code>au</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; The Royal Exhibition Building and the surrounding Carlton Gardens, as the main extant survivors of a Palace of Industry and its setting, together reflect the global influence of the international exhibition movement of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The movement showcased technological innovation and change, which helped promote a rapid increase in industrialisation and international trade through the exchange of knowledge and ideas.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>-37.8061111100</latitude><location>Melbourne, Victoria</location><longitude>144.9702778000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Royal Exhibition Building and its surrounding Carlton Gardens were designed for the great international exhibitions of 1880 and 1888 in Melbourne. The building and grounds were designed by Joseph Reed. The building is constructed of brick and timber, steel and slate. It combines elements from the Byzantine, Romanesque, Lombardic and Italian Renaissance styles. The property is typical of the international exhibition movement which saw over 50 exhibitions staged between 1851 and 1915 in venues including Paris, New York, Vienna, Calcutta, Kingston (Jamaica) and Santiago (Chile). All shared a common theme and aims: to chart material and moral progress through displays of industry from all nations.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Royal Exhibition Building and Carlton Gardens</site><states>Australia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1730</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2011</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1369</http_url><id_number>1369</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1369.jpg</image_url><iso_code>au</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-22.5625000000</latitude><location></location><longitude>113.8102777778</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The 604,500 hectare marine and terrestrial property of Ningaloo Coast, on the remote western coast of Australia, includes one of the longest near-shore reefs in the world. On land the site features an extensive karst system and network of underground caves and water courses. Annual gatherings of whale sharks occur at Ningaloo Coast, which is home to numerous marine species, among them a wealth of sea turtles. The terrestrial part of the site features subterranean water bodies with a substantial network of caves, conduits, and groundwater streams. They support a variety of rare species that contribute to the exceptional biodiversity of the marine and terrestrial site&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Ningaloo Coast</site><states>Australia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1763</unique_number></row><row><category>Mixed</category><criteria_txt>(i)(vi)(vii)(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1981</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/147</http_url><id_number>147</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_147.jpg</image_url><iso_code>au</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-12.8333333300</latitude><location>Northern territory</location><longitude>132.8333333000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>1987,1992</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This unique archaeological and ethnological reserve, located in the Northern Territory, has been inhabited continuously for more than 40,000 years. The cave paintings, rock carvings and archaeological sites record the skills and way of life of the region&amp;rsquo;s inhabitants, from the hunter-gatherers of prehistoric times to the Aboriginal people still living there. It is a unique example of a complex of ecosystems, including tidal flats, floodplains, lowlands and plateaux, and provides a habitat for a wide range of rare or endemic species of plants and animals.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Kakadu National Park</site><states>Australia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1872</unique_number></row><row><category>Mixed</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)(vi)(vii)(viii)(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1982</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/181</http_url><id_number>181</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_181.jpg</image_url><iso_code>au</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-41.5833333300</latitude><location>State of Tasmania</location><longitude>145.4166667000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>1989</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;In a region that has been subjected to severe glaciation, these parks and reserves, with their steep gorges, covering an area of over 1 million ha, constitute one of the last expanses of temperate rainforest in the world. Remains found in limestone caves attest to the human occupation of the area for more than 20,000 years.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Tasmanian Wilderness</site><states>Australia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1950</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2019</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1577</http_url><id_number>1577</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1577.jpg</image_url><iso_code>au</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-38.0811111111</latitude><location></location><longitude>141.8852777778</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Budj Bim Cultural Landscape, located in the traditional Country of the Gunditjmara people in south-eastern Australia, consists of three serial components containing one of the world’s most extensive and oldest aquaculture systems. The Budj Bim lava flows provide the basis for the complex system of channels, weirs and dams developed by the Gunditjmara in order to trap, store and harvest kooyang (short-finned eel – &lt;em&gt;Anguilla australis&lt;/em&gt;). The highly productive aquaculture system provided an economic and social base for Gunditjmara society for six millennia. The Budj Bim Cultural Landscape is the result of a creational process narrated by the Gunditjmara as a deep time story, referring to the idea that they have always lived there. From an archaeological perspective, deep time represents a period of at least 32,000 years. The ongoing dynamic relationship of Gunditjmara and their land is nowadays carried by knowledge systems retained through oral transmission and continuity of cultural practice.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Budj Bim Cultural Landscape</site><states>Australia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2262</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1996</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/784</http_url><id_number>784</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_784.jpg</image_url><iso_code>at</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee decided to inscribe the nominated property on the basis of cultural &lt;em&gt;criteria (ii), (iv) and (vi)&lt;/em&gt; and considered that the site is of outstanding universal value being an important example of a European ecclesiastical city- state which preserves to a remarkable degree its dramatic townscape, its historically significant urban fabric and a large number of outstanding ecclesiastical and secular buildings from several centuries. It is also noteworthy for its associations with the arts, and in particular with music in the person of its famous son, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>47.8005555600</latitude><location>Salzburg</location><longitude>13.0433333300</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Salzburg has managed to preserve an extraordinarily rich urban fabric, developed over the period from the Middle Ages to the 19th century when it was a city-state ruled by a prince-archbishop. Its Flamboyant Gothic art attracted many craftsmen and artists before the city became even better known through the work of the Italian architects Vincenzo Scamozzi and Santini Solari, to whom the centre of Salzburg owes much of its Baroque appearance. This meeting-point of northern and southern Europe perhaps sparked the genius of Salzburg&amp;rsquo;s most famous son, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, whose name has been associated with the city ever since.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic Centre of the City of Salzburg</site><states>Austria</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>927</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1998</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/785</http_url><id_number>785</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_785.jpg</image_url><iso_code>at</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; The Semmering Railway represents an outstanding technological solution to a major physical problem in the construction of early railways.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; With the construction of the Semmering Railway, areas of great natural beauty became more easily accessible and as a result these were developed for residential and recreational use, creating a new form of cultural landscape.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>47.6487777800</latitude><location>Between Gloggnitz, State of Lower Austria and Simmering, State of Styria</location><longitude>15.8279722200</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Semmering Railway, built over 41 km of high mountains between 1848 and 1854, is one of the greatest feats of civil engineering from this pioneering phase of railway building. The high standard of the tunnels, viaducts and other works has ensured the continuous use of the line up to the present day. It runs through a spectacular mountain landscape and there are many fine buildings designed for leisure activities along the way, built when the area was opened up due to the advent of the railway.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Semmering Railway</site><states>Austria</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>928</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1996</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/786</http_url><id_number>786</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_786.jpg</image_url><iso_code>at</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee decided to inscribe the nominated property as an ensemble on the basis of cultural &lt;em&gt;criteria (i) and (iv)&lt;/em&gt; considering that the site is of outstanding universal value being an especially well preserved example of the Baroque princely residential ensemble, which constitutes an outstanding example of a Gesamtkunstwerk. The Palace and Gardens are exceptional by virtue of the evidence that they preserve of modifications over several centuries that vividly illustrate the tastes, interests and aspirations of successive Habsburg monarchs.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>48.1866666700</latitude><location>Vienna</location><longitude>16.3133333300</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;From the 18th century to 1918, Sch&amp;ouml;nbrunn was the residence of the Habsburg emperors. It was designed by the architects Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach and Nicolaus Pacassi and is full of outstanding examples of decorative art. Together with its gardens, the site of the world&amp;rsquo;s first zoo in 1752, it is a remarkable Baroque ensemble and a perfect example of &lt;em&gt;Gesamtkunstwerk&lt;/em&gt;&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Palace and Gardens of Schönbrunn</site><states>Austria</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>929</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1997</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/806</http_url><id_number>806</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_806.jpg</image_url><iso_code>at</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee decided to inscribe this site on the basis of &lt;em&gt;criteria (iii) and (iv)&lt;/em&gt;, considering that the Hallstatt-Dachstein/Salzkammergut alpine region is an outstanding example of a natural landscape of great beauty and scientific interest which also contains evidence of a fundamental human economic activity, the whole integrated in a harmonious and mutually beneficial manner.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>47.5594444400</latitude><location>States of Upper Austria, Styria and Salzburg</location><longitude>13.6463888900</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Human activity in the magnificent natural landscape of the Salzkammergut began in prehistoric times, with the salt deposits being exploited as early as the 2nd millennium BC. This resource formed the basis of the area&amp;rsquo;s prosperity up to the middle of the 20th century, a prosperity that is reflected in the fine architecture of the town of Hallstatt.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Hallstatt-Dachstein / Salzkammergut Cultural Landscape</site><states>Austria</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>952</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2000</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/970</http_url><id_number>970</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_970.jpg</image_url><iso_code>at</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; The Wachau is an outstanding example of a riverine landscape bordered by mountains in which material evidence of its long historical evolution has survived to a remarkable degree.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; The architecture, the human settlements, and the agricultural use of the land in the Wachau vividly illustrate a basically medieval landscape which has evolved organically and harmoniously over time.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>48.3644444400</latitude><location>Towns of Krems and Melk, Lower Austria</location><longitude>15.4341666700</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Wachau is a stretch of the Danube Valley between Melk and Krems, a landscape of high visual quality. It preserves in an intact and visible form many traces - in terms of architecture, (monasteries, castles, ruins), urban design, (towns and villages), and agricultural use, principally for the cultivation of vines - of its evolution since prehistoric times.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Wachau Cultural Landscape</site><states>Austria</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1134</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2001</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1033</http_url><id_number>1033</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1033.jpg</image_url><iso_code>at</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; The urban and architectural qualities of the Historic Centre of Vienna bear outstanding witness to a continuing interchange of values throughout the second millennium.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; Three key periods of European cultural and political development – the Middle Ages, the Baroque period, and the Gründerzeit – are exceptionally well illustrated by the urban and architectural heritage of the Historic Centre of Vienna.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (vi):&lt;/em&gt; Since the 16th century Vienna has been universally acknowledged to be the musical capital of Europe.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>48.2166666700</latitude><location>Vienna</location><longitude>16.3833333300</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Vienna developed from early Celtic and Roman settlements into a Medieval and Baroque city, the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century. The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, as well as the late-19th-century Ringstrasse lined with grand buildings, monuments and parks.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic Centre of Vienna</site><states>Austria</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1206</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1999</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/931</http_url><id_number>931</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_931.jpg</image_url><iso_code>at</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>47.0741666667</latitude><location></location><longitude>15.3916666667</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2010</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The City of Graz &amp;ndash; Historic Centre and Schloss Eggenberg bear witness to an exemplary model of the living heritage of a central European urban complex influenced by the secular presence of the Habsburgs and the cultural and artistic role played by the main aristocratic families. They are a harmonious blend of the architectural styles and artistic movements that have succeeded each other from the Middle Ages until the 18th century, from the many neighbouring regions of Central and Mediterranean Europe. They embody a diversified and highly comprehensive ensemble of architectural, decorative and landscape examples of these interchanges of influence.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>City of Graz – Historic Centre and Schloss Eggenberg</site><states>Austria</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1724</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)</criteria_txt><danger>P 2003-2009</danger><date_inscribed>2000</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/958</http_url><id_number>958</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_958.jpg</image_url><iso_code>az</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; The Walled City of Baku represents an outstanding and rare example of an historic urban ensemble and architecture with influence from Zoroastrian, Sassanian, Arabic, Persian, Shirvani, Ottoman, and Russian cultures.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>40.3666666700</latitude><location>Apsheron peninsula</location><longitude>49.8333333300</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Built on a site inhabited since the Palaeolithic period, the Walled City of Baku reveals evidence of Zoroastrian, Sasanian, Arabic, Persian, Shirvani, Ottoman, and Russian presence in cultural continuity. The Inner City (Icheri Sheher) has preserved much of its 12th-century defensive walls. The 12th-century Maiden Tower (Giz Galasy) is built over earlier structures dating from the 7th to 6th centuries BC, and the 15th-century Shirvanshahs' Palace is one of the pearls of Azerbaijan's architecture.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Walled City of Baku with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower</site><states>Azerbaijan</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1121</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2007</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1076</http_url><id_number>1076</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1076.jpg</image_url><iso_code>az</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>40.1250000000</latitude><location>Garadagh District and Apsheron District, Baku City Administrative Territory</location><longitude>49.3750000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Gobustan Rock Art Cultural Landscape covers three areas of a plateau of rocky boulders rising out of the semi-desert of central Azerbaijan, with an outstanding collection of more than 6,000 rock engravings bearing testimony to 40,000 years of rock art. The site also features the remains of inhabited caves, settlements and burials, all reflecting an intensive human use by the inhabitants of the area during the wet period that followed the last Ice Age, from the Upper Paleolithic to the Middle Ages. The site, which covers an area of 537 ha, is part of the larger protected Gobustan Reservation.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Gobustan Rock Art Cultural Landscape</site><states>Azerbaijan</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1474</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2019</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1549</http_url><id_number>1549</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1549.jpg</image_url><iso_code>az</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>41.2033333333</latitude><location></location><longitude>47.1875000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>The historic city of Sheki is located at the foot of the Greater Caucasus Mountains and divided in two by the Gurjana River. While the older northern part is built on the mountain, its southern part extends into the river valley. Its historic centre, rebuilt after the destruction of an earlier town by mudflows in the 18th century, is characterized by a traditional architectural ensemble of houses with high gabled roofs. Located along important historic trade routes, the city's architecture is influenced by Safavid, Qadjar and Russian building traditions. The Khan Palace, in the northeast of the city, and a number of merchant houses reflect the wealth generated by silkworm breeding and the trade in silk cocoons from the late 18th to the 19th centuries.</short_description><site>Historic Centre of Sheki with the Khan’s Palace</site><states>Azerbaijan</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2333</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2012</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1364</http_url><id_number>1364</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1364.jpg</image_url><iso_code>bh</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>26.2412800000</latitude><location></location><longitude>50.6135100000</longitude><region>Arab States</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The site consists of seventeen buildings in Muharraq City, three offshore oyster beds, part of the seashore and the Qal’at Bu Mahir fortress on the southern tip of Muharraq Island, from where boats used to set off for the oyster beds. The listed buildings include residences of wealthy merchants, shops, storehouses and a mosque. The site is the last remaining complete example of the cultural tradition of pearling and the wealth it generated at a time when the trade dominated the Gulf economy (2nd century to the 1930s, when Japan developed cultured pearls). It also constitutes an outstanding example of traditional utilization of the sea’s resources and human interaction with the environment, which shaped both the economy and the cultural identity of the island’s society.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Pearling, Testimony of an Island Economy</site><states>Bahrain</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1859</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2005</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1192</http_url><id_number>1192</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1192.jpg</image_url><iso_code>bh</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii): &lt;/em&gt;Being an important port city, where people and traditions from different parts of the then known world met, lived and practiced their commercial activities, makes the place a real meeting point of cultures – all reflected in its architecture and development. Being in addition, invaded and occupied for long periods, by most of the great powers and empires, leaved their cultural traces in different strata of the tell.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii): &lt;/em&gt;The site was the capital of one of the most important ancient civilizations of the region – the Dilmun civilization. As such this site is the best representative of this culture.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv): &lt;/em&gt;The palaces of Dilmun are unique examples of public architecture of this culture, which had an impact on architecture in general in the region. The different fortifications are the best examples of defence works from the 3rd century B.C to the 16th century AD, all on one site. The protected palm groves surrounding the site are an illustration of the typical landscape and agriculture of the region, since the 3rd century BC.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>26.2330600000</latitude><location>Northern Region</location><longitude>50.5272222222</longitude><region>Arab States</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Qal’at al-Bahrain is a typical tell – an artificial mound created by many successive layers of human occupation. The strata of the 300 × 600 m tell testify to continuous human presence from about 2300 BC to the 16th century AD. About 25% of the site has been excavated, revealing structures of different types: residential, public, commercial, religious and military. They testify to the importance of the site, a trading port, over the centuries. On the top of the 12 m mound there is the impressive Portuguese fort, which gave the whole site its name, qal’a (fort). The site was the capital of the Dilmun, one of the most important ancient civilizations of the region. It contains the richest remains inventoried of this civilization, which was hitherto only known from written Sumerian references.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Qal’at al-Bahrain – Ancient Harbour and Capital of Dilmun</site><states>Bahrain</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2062</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2019</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1542</http_url><id_number>1542</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1542.jpg</image_url><iso_code>bh</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>26.1497222222</latitude><location></location><longitude>50.5127777778</longitude><region>Arab States</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>The Dilmun Burial Mounds, built between 2200 and 1750 BCE, span over 21 archaeological sites in the western part of the island. Six of these sites are burial mound fields consisting of a few dozen to several thousand tumuli. In all there are about 11,774 burial mounds, originally in the form of cylindrical low towers. The other 15 sites include 17 royal mounds, constructed as two-storey sepulchral towers. The burial mounds are evidence of the Early Dilmun civilization, around the 2nd millennium BCE, during which Bahrain became a trade hub whose prosperity enabled the inhabitants to develop an elaborate burial tradition applicable to the entire population. These tombs illustrate globally unique characteristics, not only in terms of their number, density and scale, but also in terms of details such as burial chambers equipped with alcoves.</short_description><site>Dilmun Burial Mounds</site><states>Bahrain</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2291</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1985</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/321</http_url><id_number>321</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_321.jpg</image_url><iso_code>bd</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>22.6666700000</latitude><location>Khulna District</location><longitude>89.8000000000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Situated in the suburbs of Bagerhat, at the meeting-point of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers, this ancient city, formerly known as Khalifatabad, was founded by the Turkish general Ulugh Khan Jahan in the 15th century. The city&amp;rsquo;s infrastructure reveals considerable technical skill and an exceptional number of mosques and early Islamic monuments, many built of brick, can be seen there.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic Mosque City of Bagerhat</site><states>Bangladesh</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>365</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1985</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/322</http_url><id_number>322</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_322.jpg</image_url><iso_code>bd</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>25.0333333300</latitude><location>Naogaon Subdivision of Rajshahi District</location><longitude>88.9833333300</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Evidence of the rise of Mahayana Buddhism in Bengal from the 7th century onwards, Somapura Mahavira, or the Great Monastery, was a renowned intellectual centre until the 12th century. Its layout perfectly adapted to its religious function, this monastery-city represents a unique artistic achievement. With its simple, harmonious lines and its profusion of carved decoration, it influenced Buddhist architecture as far away as Cambodia.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Ruins of the Buddhist Vihara at Paharpur</site><states>Bangladesh</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>366</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1997</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/798</http_url><id_number>798</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_798.jpg</image_url><iso_code>bd</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee inscribed the site under &lt;em&gt;criteria (ix)&lt;/em&gt; and &lt;em&gt;(x) &lt;/em&gt; as one of the largest remaining areas of mangroves in the world, which supports an exceptional biodiversity with a wide range of flora and fauna, including the Bengal Tiger and provides a significant example of on-going ecological processes (monsoon rains, flooding, delta formation, tidal influence and plant colonisation).&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>21.9500000000</latitude><location>South-Western Region (Khulna Division)</location><longitude>89.1833300000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Sundarbans mangrove forest, one of the largest such forests in the world (140,000 ha), lies on the delta of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers on the Bay of Bengal. It is adjacent to the border of India&amp;rsquo;s Sundarbans World Heritage site inscribed in 1987. The site is intersected by a complex network of tidal waterways, mudflats and small islands of salt-tolerant mangrove forests, and presents an excellent example of ongoing ecological processes. The area is known for its wide range of fauna, including 260 bird species, the Bengal tiger and other threatened species such as the estuarine crocodile and the Indian python.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>The Sundarbans</site><states>Bangladesh</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>943</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2011</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1376</http_url><id_number>1376</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1376.jpg</image_url><iso_code>bb</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>13.0966666667</latitude><location></location><longitude>-59.6138888889</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Historic Bridgetown and its Garrison, an outstanding example of British colonial architecture consisting of a well-preserved old town built in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, which testifies to the spread of Great Britain's Atlantic colonial empire. The property also includes a nearby military garrison which consists of numerous historic buildings. With its serpentine urban lay-out the property testifies to a different approach to colonial town-planning compared to the Spanish and Dutch colonial cities of the region which were built along a grid plan.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic Bridgetown and its Garrison</site><states>Barbados</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1786</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2000</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/625</http_url><id_number>625</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_625.jpg</image_url><iso_code>by</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion ii:&lt;/em&gt; Mir Castle is an exceptional example of a central European castle, reflecting in its design and layout successive cultural influences (Gothic, Baroque, and Renaissance) that blend harmoniously to create an impressive monument to the history of this region.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion iv:&lt;/em&gt; The region in which Mir Castle stands has a long history of political and cultural confrontation and coalescence, which is graphically represented in the form and appearance of the ensemble.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>53.4510833300</latitude><location>Grodno Province (oblast), Korelichi District</location><longitude>26.4727222200</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The construction of this castle began at the end of the 15th century, in Gothic style. It was subsequently extended and reconstructed, first in the Renaissance and then in the Baroque style. After being abandoned for nearly a century and suffering severe damage during the Napoleonic period, the castle was restored at the end of the 19th century, with the addition of a number of other elements and the landscaping of the surrounding area as a park. Its present form is graphic testimony to its often turbulent history.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Mir Castle Complex</site><states>Belarus</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>743</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2005</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1196</http_url><id_number>1196</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1196.jpg</image_url><iso_code>by</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii): &lt;/em&gt;The architectural, residential and cultural complex of the Radziwill family at Nesvizh was the cradle for inoculation of new concepts based on the synthesis of the Western traditions, leading to the establishment of a new architectural school in Central Europe.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv): &lt;/em&gt;The Radziwill complex represents an important stage in the development of building typology in the history of architecture of the Central Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries. This concerned particularly the Corpus Christi Church with its typology related to cross-cupola basilica.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (vi): &lt;/em&gt;The Radziwill family was particularly significant for being associated with the interpretation of the influences from Southern and Western Europe and the transmission of the ideas in the Central and Eastern Europe.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>53.2227800000</latitude><location>Minsk Province (Minskaya Voblasts')</location><longitude>26.6913900000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Architectural, Residential and Cultural Complex of the Radziwill Family at Nesvizh is located in central Belarus. The Radziwill dynasty, who built and kept the ensemble from the 16th century until 1939, gave birth to some of the most important personalities in European history and culture. Due to their efforts, the town of Nesvizh came to exercise great influence in the sciences, arts, crafts and architecture. The complex consists of the residential castle and the mausoleum Church of Corpus Christi with their setting. The castle has ten interconnected buildings, which developed as an architectural whole around a six-sided courtyard. The palaces and church became important prototypes marking the development of architecture throughout Central Europe and Russia.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Architectural, Residential and Cultural Complex of the Radziwill Family at Nesvizh</site><states>Belarus</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1373</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1998</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/855</http_url><id_number>855</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_855.jpg</image_url><iso_code>be</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; The Flemish béguinages demonstrate outstanding physical characteristics of urban and rural planning and a combination of religious and traditional architecture in styles specific to the Flemish cultural region.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii):&lt;/em&gt; The béguinages bear exceptional witness to the cultural tradition of independent religious women in north-western Europe in the Middle Ages.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv)&lt;/em&gt;: The béguinages constitute an outstanding example of an architectural ensemble associated with a religious movement characteristic of the Middle Ages associating both secular and conventual values.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>51.0309722200</latitude><location>Flanders Region, Provinces of Antwerp, Limburg, Eastern Flanders, Western Flanders, and Flemish Brabant</location><longitude>4.4737500000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The &lt;em&gt;Béguines&lt;/em&gt; were women who dedicated their lives to God without retiring from the world. In the 13th century they founded the &lt;em&gt;béguinages&lt;/em&gt; , enclosed communities designed to meet their spiritual and material needs. The Flemish &lt;em&gt;béguinages&lt;/em&gt; are architectural ensembles composed of houses, churches, ancillary buildings and green spaces, with a layout of either urban or rural origin and built in styles specific to the Flemish cultural region. They are a fascinating reminder of the tradition of the &lt;em&gt;Béguines&lt;/em&gt; that developed in north-western Europe in the Middle Ages.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Flemish Béguinages</site><states>Belgium</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1006</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1998</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/856</http_url><id_number>856</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_856.jpg</image_url><iso_code>be</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii):&lt;/em&gt; The boat-lifts of the Canal du Centre bear exceptional testimony to the remarkable hydraulic engineering developments of 19th-century Europe.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; These boat-lifts represent the apogee of the application of engineering technology to the construction of canals.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>50.4811100000</latitude><location></location><longitude>4.1372200000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The four hydraulic boat-lifts on this short stretch of the historic Canal du Centre are industrial monuments of the highest quality. Together with the canal itself and its associated structures, they constitute a remarkably well-preserved and complete example of a late-19th-century industrial landscape. Of the eight hydraulic boat-lifts built at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, the only ones in the world which still exist in their original working condition are these four lifts on the Canal du Centre.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>The Four Lifts on the Canal du Centre and their Environs, La Louvière and Le Roeulx (Hainaut)</site><states>Belgium</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1007</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1998</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/857</http_url><id_number>857</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_857.jpg</image_url><iso_code>be</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; The Grand-Place is an outstanding example of the eclectic and highly successful blending of architectural and artistic styles that characterizes the culture and society of this region.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; Through the nature and quality of its architecture and of its outstanding quality as a public open space, the Grand-Place illustrates in an exceptional way the evolution and achievements of a highly successful mercantile city of northern Europe at the height of its prosperity.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>50.8466800000</latitude><location>City of Brussels, Brussels-Capital Region</location><longitude>4.3524200000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;La Grand-Place in Brussels is a remarkably homogeneous body of public and private buildings, dating mainly from the late 17th century. The architecture provides a vivid illustration of the level of social and cultural life of the period in this important political and commercial centre.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>La Grand-Place, Brussels</site><states>Belgium</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1008</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2000</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/996</http_url><id_number>996</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_996.jpg</image_url><iso_code>be</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; The Historic Town of Brugge is testimony, over a long period, of a considerable exchange of influences on the development of architecture, particularly in brick Gothic, as well as favouring innovative artistic influences in the development of medieval painting, being the birthplace of the school of the Flemish Primitives.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; The Historic Town of Brugge is an outstanding example of an architectural ensemble, illustrating significant stages in the commercial and cultural fields in medieval Europe, of which the public, social, and religious institutions are a living testimony.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (vi): &lt;/em&gt;The town of Brugge has been the birthplace of the Flemish Primitives and a centre of patronage and development of painting in the Middle Ages with artists such as Jan van Eyck and Hans Memling.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>51.2089100000</latitude><location></location><longitude>3.2252700000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Brugge is an outstanding example of a medieval historic settlement, which has maintained its historic fabric as this has evolved over the centuries, and where original Gothic constructions form part of the town's identity. As one of the commercial and cultural capitals of Europe, Brugge developed cultural links to different parts of the world. It is closely associated with the school of Flemish Primitive painting.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic Centre of Brugge</site><states>Belgium</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1160</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2000</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1005</http_url><id_number>1005</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1005.jpg</image_url><iso_code>be</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (i):&lt;/em&gt; The Town Houses of Victor Horta in Brussels are works of human creative genius, representing the highest expression of the influential Art Nouveau style in art and architecture.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; The appearance of Art Nouveau in the closing years of the 19th century marked a decisive stage in the evolution of architecture, making possible subsequent developments, and the Town Houses of Victor Horta in Brussels bear exceptional witness to its radical new approach.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; The Town Houses of Victor Horta are outstanding examples of Art Nouveau architecture brilliantly illustrating the transition from the 19th to the 20th century in art, thought, and society.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>50.8280600000</latitude><location></location><longitude>4.3622300000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The four major town houses - H&amp;ocirc;tel Tassel, H&amp;ocirc;tel Solvay, H&amp;ocirc;tel van Eetvelde, and Maison &amp;amp; Atelier Horta - located in Brussels and designed by the architect Victor Horta, one of the earliest initiators of Art Nouveau, are some of the most remarkable pioneering works of architecture of the end of the 19th century. The stylistic revolution represented by these works is characterised by their open plan, the diffusion of light, and the brilliant joining of the curved lines of decoration with the structure of the building.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Major Town Houses of the Architect Victor Horta (Brussels)</site><states>Belgium</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1173</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2000</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1006</http_url><id_number>1006</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1006.jpg</image_url><iso_code>be</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (i):&lt;/em&gt; The Neolithic flint mines at Spiennes provide exceptional testimony to early human inventiveness and application.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii):&lt;/em&gt; The arrival of the Neolithic cultures marked a major milestone in human cultural and technological development, which is vividly illustrated by the vast complex of ancient flint mines at Spiennes.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; The flint mines at Spiennes are outstanding examples of the Neolithic mining of flint, which marked a seminal stage of human technological and cultural progress.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>50.4307700000</latitude><location>Province of Hainaut, Wallonia Region</location><longitude>3.9787900000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Neolithic flint mines at Spiennes, covering more than 100 ha, are the largest and earliest concentration of ancient mines in Europe. They are also remarkable for the diversity of technological solutions used for extraction and for the fact that they are directly linked to a settlement of the same period.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Neolithic Flint Mines at Spiennes (Mons)</site><states>Belgium</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1174</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2000</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1009</http_url><id_number>1009</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1009.jpg</image_url><iso_code>be</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; The Cathedral of Notre-Dame in Tournai bears witness to a considerable exchange of influence between the architecture of the Ile de France, the Rhineland, and Normandy during the short period at the beginning of the 12th century that preceded the flowering of Gothic architecture.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; In its imposing dimensions, the Cathedral of Notre-Dame in Tournai is an outstanding example of the great edifices of the school of the north of the Seine, precursors of the vastness of the Gothic cathedrals.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>50.6060300000</latitude><location>Province of Hainaut, Wallonia Region</location><longitude>3.3892600000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Cathedral of Notre-Dame in Tournai was built in the first half of the 12th century. It is especially distinguished by a Romanesque nave of extraordinary dimensions, a wealth of sculpture on its capitals and a transept topped by five towers, all precursors of the Gothic style. The choir, rebuilt in the 13th century, is in the pure Gothic style.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Notre-Dame Cathedral in Tournai</site><states>Belgium</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1179</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2005</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1185</http_url><id_number>1185</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1185.jpg</image_url><iso_code>be</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii): &lt;/em&gt; Through the publications of the Officina Plantiniana, the Plantin-Moretus complex is a testimony to the major role played by this important centre of 16th century European humanism in the development of science and culture.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii): &lt;/em&gt; Considered as an integral part of the Memory of the World (UNESCO, 2001), the Plantinian Archives, including the business archives of the Officina, the books of commercial accounts and the correspondence with a number of world-renowned scholars and humanists, provide an outstanding testimony to a cultural tradition of the first importance.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv): &lt;/em&gt; As an outstanding example of the relationship between the living environment of a family during the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, the world of work and the world of commerce, the Plantin-Moretus Complex is of unrivalled Documentary value relating to significant periods of European history: the Renaissance, the Baroque era and Classicism.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (vi): &lt;/em&gt; The Plantin-Moretus complex is tangibly associated with ideas, beliefs, technologies and literary and artistic works of outstanding universal significance.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>51.2183300000</latitude><location>City of Antwerp, Flanders Region</location><longitude>4.3977800000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Plantin-Moretus Museum is a printing plant and publishing house dating from the Renaissance and Baroque periods. Situated in Antwerp, one of the three leading cities of early European printing along with Paris and Venice, it is associated with the history of the invention and spread of typography. Its name refers to the greatest printer-publisher of the second half of the 16th century: Christophe Plantin (c. 1520–89). The monument is of outstanding architectural value. It contains exhaustive evidence of the life and work of what was the most prolific printing and publishing house in Europe in the late 16th century. The building of the company, which remained in activity until 1867, contains a large collection of old printing equipment, an extensive library, invaluable archives and works of art, among them a painting by Rubens.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Plantin-Moretus House-Workshops-Museum Complex</site><states>Belgium</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1362</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2009</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1298</http_url><id_number>1298</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1298.jpg</image_url><iso_code>be</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>50.8350000000</latitude><location></location><longitude>4.4161111111</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;When banker and art collector Adolphe Stoclet commissioned this house from one of the leading architects of the Vienna Secession movement, Josef Hoffmann, in 1905, he imposed neither aesthetic nor financial restrictions on the project. The house and garden were completed in 1911 and their austere geometry marked a turning point in Art Nouveau, foreshadowing Art Deco and the Modern Movement in architecture. Stoclet House is one of the most accomplished and homogenous buildings of the Vienna Secession, and features works by Koloman Moser and Gustav Klimt, embodying the aspiration of creating a &amp;lsquo;total work of art' (Gesamtkunstwerk). Bearing testimony to artistic renewal in European architecture, the house retains a high level of integrity, both externally and internally as it retains most of its original fixtures and furnishings.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Stoclet House</site><states>Belgium</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1578</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2012</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1344</http_url><id_number>1344</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1344.jpg</image_url><iso_code>be</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>50.4352777778</latitude><location></location><longitude>3.8383333333</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The four sites of the property form a strip 170&amp;nbsp;km long by 3&amp;ndash;15&amp;nbsp;km wide, crossing Belgium from east to west, consisting of the best-preserved 19th- and 20th-century coal-mining sites of the country. It features examples of the utopian architecture from the early periods of the industrial era in Europe within a highly integrated, industrial and urban ensemble, notably the Grand-Hornu colliery and workers&amp;rsquo; city designed by Bruno Renard in the first half of the 19th century. Bois-du-Luc includes numerous buildings erected from 1838 to 1909 and one of Europe&amp;rsquo;s oldest collieries dating back to the late 17th century. While Wallonia had hundreds of collieries, most have lost their infrastructure, while the four components of the listed site retain a high measure of integrity.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Major Mining Sites of Wallonia</site><states>Belgium</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1837</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger>1</danger><date_inscribed>1996</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/764</http_url><id_number>764</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_764.jpg</image_url><iso_code>bz</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee inscribed the Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System under natural &lt;em&gt;criteria (vii), (ix) and (x)&lt;/em&gt; as the largest barrier reef in the Northern hemisphere, as a serial nomination consisting of seven sites. The Reef illustrates a classic example of reefs through fringing, barrier and atoll reef types.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>16.7500000000</latitude><location>Belize District (sites I, II, III), Stann Creek District ( IV,V,VI), Toledo District (VII)</location><longitude>-87.0583333300</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The coastal area of Belize is an outstanding natural system consisting of the largest barrier reef in the northern hemisphere, offshore atolls, several hundred sand cays, mangrove forests, coastal lagoons and estuaries. The system’s seven sites illustrate the evolutionary history of reef development and are a significant habitat for threatened species, including marine turtles, manatees and the American marine crocodile.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System</site><states>Belize</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>900</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1985</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/323</http_url><id_number>323</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_323.jpg</image_url><iso_code>bj</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>7.1833333330</latitude><location>Province du Zou</location><longitude>1.9833333330</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;From 1625 to 1900, 12 kings succeeded one another at the head of the powerful Kingdom of Abomey. With the exception of King Akaba, who had his own separate enclosure, they all had their palaces built within the same cob-wall area, in keeping with previous palaces as regards the use of space and materials. The royal palaces of Abomey are a unique reminder of this vanished kingdom.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Royal Palaces of Abomey</site><states>Benin</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1560</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger>Y 2014</danger><date_inscribed>1987</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/420</http_url><id_number>420</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_420.jpg</image_url><iso_code>bo</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-19.5836100000</latitude><location>Potosi, Province of Potosi</location><longitude>-65.7530600000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;In the 16th century, this area was regarded as the world’s largest industrial complex. The extraction of silver ore relied on a series of hydraulic mills. The site consists of the industrial monuments of the Cerro Rico, where water is provided by an intricate system of aqueducts and artificial lakes; the colonial town with the Casa de la Moneda; the Church of San Lorenzo; several patrician houses; and the barrios mitayos, the areas where the workers lived.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>City of Potosí</site><states>Bolivia (Plurinational State of)</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>484</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1990</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/529</http_url><id_number>529</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_529.jpg</image_url><iso_code>bo</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-16.0000000000</latitude><location>Department of Santa Cruz</location><longitude>-60.5000000000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Between 1696 and 1760, six ensembles of reducciones (settlements of Christianized Indians) inspired by the &amp;lsquo;ideal cities&amp;rsquo; of the 16th-century philosophers were founded by the Jesuits in a style that married Catholic architecture with local traditions. The six that remain &amp;ndash; San Francisco Javier, Concepci&amp;oacute;n, Santa Ana, San Miguel, San Rafael and San Jos&amp;eacute; &amp;ndash; make up a living heritage on the former territory of the Chiquitos.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Jesuit Missions of the Chiquitos</site><states>Bolivia (Plurinational State of)</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>619</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1991</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/566</http_url><id_number>566</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_566.jpg</image_url><iso_code>bo</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-19.0430600000</latitude><location>Department de Chuquisaca, Province Oropeza</location><longitude>-65.2591700000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Sucre, the first capital of Bolivia, was founded by the Spanish in the first half of the 16th century. Its many well-preserved 16th-century religious buildings, such as San L&amp;aacute;zaro, San Francisco and Santo Domingo, illustrate the blending of local architectural traditions with styles imported from Europe.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic City of Sucre</site><states>Bolivia (Plurinational State of)</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>668</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2000</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/567</http_url><id_number>567</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_567.jpg</image_url><iso_code>bo</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii):&lt;/em&gt; The ruins of Tiwanaku bear striking witness to the power of the empire that played a leading role in the development of the Andean prehispanic civilization.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv): &lt;/em&gt;The buildings of Tiwanaku are exceptional examples of the ceremonial and public architecture and art of one of the most important manifestations of the civilizations of the Andean region.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>-16.5583333300</latitude><location>Province of Ingavi, Department of La Paz</location><longitude>-68.6777800000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The city of Tiwanaku, capital of a powerful pre-Hispanic empire that dominated a large area of the southern Andes and beyond, reached its apogee between 500 and 900 AD. Its monumental remains testify to the cultural and political significance of this civilisation, which is distinct from any of the other pre-Hispanic empires of the Americas.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Tiwanaku: Spiritual and Political Centre of the Tiwanaku Culture</site><states>Bolivia (Plurinational State of)</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>670</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1998</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/883</http_url><id_number>883</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_883.jpg</image_url><iso_code>bo</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion ii:&lt;/em&gt; The sculptured rock at Samaipata is the dominant ceremonial feature of an urban settlement that represents the apogee of this form of prehispanic religious and political centre.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion iii:&lt;/em&gt; Samaipata bears outstanding witness to the existence in this Andean region of a culture with highly developed religious traditions, illustrated dramatically in the form of immense rock sculptures.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>-18.1666666700</latitude><location>Province of Florida, Department of Santa Cruz</location><longitude>-63.8166666700</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The archaeological site of Samaipata consists of two parts: the hill with its many carvings, believed to have been the ceremonial centre of the old town (14th–16th centuries), and the area to the south of the hill, which formed the administrative and residential district. The huge sculptured rock, dominating the town below, is a unique testimony to pre-Hispanic traditions and beliefs, and has no parallel anywhere in the Americas.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Fuerte de Samaipata</site><states>Bolivia (Plurinational State of)</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1035</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2000</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/967</http_url><id_number>967</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_967.jpg</image_url><iso_code>bo</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criteria (ix) and (x):&lt;/em&gt; The site contains an array of habitat types including evergreen rainforests, palm forests, cerrado, swamps, savannahs, gallery forests, and semi-deciduous dry forests. The cerrado habitats found on the Huanchaca Meseta have been isolated for millions of years providing an ideal living laboratory for the study of the evolution of these ecosystems. The site also contains a high diversity of plant and animal species, including viable populations of many globally threatened large vertebrates.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>-14.2666700000</latitude><location>Velasco Province, Santa Cruz Department</location><longitude>-60.8666700000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The National Park is one of the largest (1,523,000 ha) and most intact parks in the Amazon Basin. With an altitudinal range of 200 m to nearly 1,000 m, it is the site of a rich mosaic of habitat types from Cerrado savannah and forest to upland evergreen Amazonian forests. The park boasts an evolutionary history dating back over a billion years to the Precambrian period. An estimated 4,000 species of flora as well as over 600 bird species and viable populations of many globally endangered or threatened vertebrate species live in the park.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Noel Kempff Mercado National Park</site><states>Bolivia (Plurinational State of)</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1131</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2005</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/946</http_url><id_number>946</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_946.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ba</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (vi): &lt;/em&gt;With the “renaissance” of the Old Bridge and its surroundings, the symbolic power and meaning of the City of Mostar - as an exceptional and universal symbol of coexistence of communities from diverse cultural, ethnic and religious backgrounds - has been reinforced and strengthened, underlining the unlimited efforts of human solidarity for peace and powerful co-operation in the face of overwhelming catastrophes.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>43.3373055556</latitude><location>Herzegovina-Neretva Canton</location><longitude>17.8150000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The historic town of Mostar, spanning a deep valley of the Neretva River, developed in the 15th and 16th centuries as an Ottoman frontier town and during the Austro-Hungarian period in the 19th and 20th centuries. Mostar has long been known for its old Turkish houses and Old Bridge, Stari Most, after which it is named. In the 1990s conflict, however, most of the historic town and the Old Bridge, designed by the renowned architect Sinan, was destroyed. The Old Bridge was recently rebuilt and many of the edifices in the Old Town have been restored or rebuilt with the contribution of an international scientific committee established by UNESCO. The Old Bridge area, with its pre-Ottoman, eastern Ottoman, Mediterranean and western European architectural features, is an outstanding example of a multicultural urban settlement. The reconstructed Old Bridge and Old City of Mostar is a symbol of reconciliation, international co-operation and of the coexistence of diverse cultural, ethnic and religious communities.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Old Bridge Area of the Old City of Mostar</site><states>Bosnia and Herzegovina</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1107</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2007</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1260</http_url><id_number>1260</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1260.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ba</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>43.7814444444</latitude><location>Republika Srpska, Sarajevo Macro Region</location><longitude>19.2880250000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Mehmed Pa&amp;scaron;a Sokolović Bridge of Vi&amp;scaron;egrad across the Drina River in the east of Bosnia and Herzegovina was built at the end of the 16th century by the court architect Mimar Koca Sinan on the orders of Grand Vizier Mehmed Pa&amp;scaron;a Sokolović. Characteristic of the apogee of Ottoman monumental architecture and civil engineering, the bridge has 11 masonry arches with spans of 11 m to 15 m, and an access ramp at right angles with four arches on the left bank of the river. The 179.5 m long bridge is a representative masterpiece of Sinan, one of the greatest architects and engineers of the classical Ottoman period and a contemporary of the Italian Renaissance, with which his work may be compared. The unique elegance of proportion and monumental nobility of the whole site bear witness to the greatness of this style of architecture.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Mehmed Paša Sokolović Bridge in Višegrad</site><states>Bosnia and Herzegovina</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1437</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2001</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1021</http_url><id_number>1021</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1021.jpg</image_url><iso_code>bw</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Criterion i:&lt;/strong&gt; For many thousands of years the rocky outcrops of Tsodilo in the harsh landscape of the Kalahari Desert have been visited and settled by humans, who have left rich traces of their presence in the form of outstanding rock art.&lt;/p&gt;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Criterion iii:&lt;/strong&gt; Tsodilo is a site that has witnessed visits and settlement by successive human communities for many millennia.&lt;/p&gt;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Criterion vi: &lt;/strong&gt;The Tsodilo outcrops have immense symbolic and religious significance for the human communities who continue to survive in this hostile environment.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>-18.7500000000</latitude><location>The Ngamiland District, north-west&#xd;
&#xd;
Botswana</location><longitude>21.7333333300</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;With one of the highest concentrations of rock art in the world, Tsodilo has been called the ''Louvre of the Desert''. Over 4,500 paintings are preserved in an area of only 10 km2 of the Kalahari Desert. The archaeological record of the area gives a chronological account of human activities and environmental changes over at least 100,000 years. Local communities in this hostile environment respect Tsodilo as a place of worship frequented by ancestral spirits.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Tsodilo</site><states>Botswana</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1191</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2014</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1432</http_url><id_number>1432</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1432.jpg</image_url><iso_code>bw</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-19.2833333333</latitude><location></location><longitude>22.9000000000</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This delta in north-west Botswana comprises permanent marshlands and seasonally flooded plains. It is one of the very few major interior delta systems that do not flow into a sea or ocean, with a wetland system that is almost intact. One of the unique characteristics of the site is that the annual flooding from the River Okavango occurs during the dry season, with the result that the native plants and animals have synchronized their biological cycles with these seasonal rains and floods. It is an exceptional example of the interaction between climatic, hydrological and biological processes. The Okavango Delta is home to some of the world&amp;rsquo;s most endangered species of large mammal, such as the cheetah, white rhinoceros, black rhinoceros, African wild dog and lion.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Okavango Delta</site><states>Botswana</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1976</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1980</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/124</http_url><id_number>124</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_124.jpg</image_url><iso_code>br</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-20.3888888900</latitude><location>State of Minas Gerais</location><longitude>-43.5055555600</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Founded at the end of the 17th century, Ouro Preto (Black Gold) was the focal point of the gold rush and Brazil&amp;rsquo;s golden age in the 18th century. With the exhaustion of the gold mines in the 19th century, the city&amp;rsquo;s influence declined but many churches, bridges and fountains remain as a testimony to its past prosperity and the exceptional talent of the Baroque sculptor Aleijadinho.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic Town of Ouro Preto</site><states>Brazil</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>136</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1982</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/189</http_url><id_number>189</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_189.jpg</image_url><iso_code>br</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-8.0133333330</latitude><location>State of Pernambuco, North-East Region of Brazil</location><longitude>-34.8450000000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Founded in the 16th century by the Portuguese, the town&amp;rsquo;s history is linked to the sugar-cane industry. Rebuilt after being looted by the Dutch, its basic urban fabric dates from the 18th century. The harmonious balance between the buildings, gardens, 20 Baroque churches, convents and numerous small passos (chapels) all contribute to Olinda&amp;rsquo;s particular charm.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic Centre of the Town of Olinda</site><states>Brazil</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>210</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1985</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/309</http_url><id_number>309</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_309.jpg</image_url><iso_code>br</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-12.9666666700</latitude><location>Bahia State, north-east region of Brazil</location><longitude>-38.5000000000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;As the first capital of Brazil, from 1549 to 1763, Salvador de Bahia witnessed the blending of European, African and Amerindian cultures. It was also, from 1558, the first slave market in the New World, with slaves arriving to work on the sugar plantations. The city has managed to preserve many outstanding Renaissance buildings. A special feature of the old town are the brightly coloured houses, often decorated with fine stucco-work.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic Centre of Salvador de Bahia</site><states>Brazil</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>348</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1985</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/334</http_url><id_number>334</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_334.jpg</image_url><iso_code>br</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-20.4997222200</latitude><location>State of Minas Gerais, City of Congonhas</location><longitude>-43.8577777800</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This sanctuary in Minais Gerais, south of Belo Horizonte was built in the second half of the 18th century. It consists of a church with a magnificent Rococo interior of Italian inspiration; an outdoor stairway decorated with statues of the prophets; and seven chapels illustrating the Stations of the Cross, in which the polychrome sculptures by Aleijadinho are masterpieces of a highly original, moving, expressive form of Baroque art.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Congonhas</site><states>Brazil</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>380</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(x)</criteria_txt><danger>P 1999-2001</danger><date_inscribed>1986</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/355</http_url><id_number>355</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_355.jpg</image_url><iso_code>br</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-25.6833300000</latitude><location>Paraná State</location><longitude>-54.4333300000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The park shares with Iguazú National Park in Argentina one of the world’s largest and most impressive waterfalls, extending over some 2,700 m. It is home to many rare and endangered species of flora and fauna, among them the giant otter and the giant anteater. The clouds of spray produced by the waterfall are conducive to the growth of lush vegetation.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Iguaçu National Park</site><states>Brazil</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>408</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1987</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/445</http_url><id_number>445</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_445.jpg</image_url><iso_code>br</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-15.7833300000</latitude><location>Federal District</location><longitude>-47.9000000000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Brasilia, a capital created &lt;em&gt;ex nihilo&lt;/em&gt; in the centre of the country in 1956, was a landmark in the history of town planning. Urban planner Lucio Costa and architect Oscar Niemeyer intended that every element – from the layout of the residential and administrative districts (often compared to the shape of a bird in flight) to the symmetry of the buildings themselves – should be in harmony with the city’s overall design. The official buildings, in particular, are innovative and imaginative.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Brasilia</site><states>Brazil</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>516</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1991</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/606</http_url><id_number>606</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_606.jpg</image_url><iso_code>br</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-8.4166666670</latitude><location>Sud-est de Etat du Piaui – Communes de Sao Raimundo Nonato, Sao Joao do Piaui et Canto do Butriti</location><longitude>-42.3333333300</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Many of the numerous rock shelters in the Serra da Capivara National Park are decorated with cave paintings, some more than 25,000 years old. They are an outstanding testimony to one of the oldest human communities of South America.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Serra da Capivara National Park</site><states>Brazil</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>719</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1997</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/821</http_url><id_number>821</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_821.jpg</image_url><iso_code>br</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee decided to inscribe this property on the basis of criteria (iii), (iv) and (v), considering that the Historic Centre of S&amp;atilde;o Luis do Maranh&amp;atilde;o is an outstanding example of a Portuguese colonial town that adapted successfully to the climatic conditions in equatorial South America and which has preserved its urban fabric, harmoniously integrated with its natural setting, to an exceptional degree.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>-2.5141666670</latitude><location>Maranhão State, Brasil’s North-East Region</location><longitude>-44.3025000000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The late 17th-century core of this historic town, founded by the French and occupied by the Dutch before coming under Portuguese rule, has preserved the original rectangular street plan in its entirety. Thanks to a period of economic stagnation in the early 20th century, an exceptional number of fine historic buildings have survived, making this an outstanding example of an Iberian colonial town.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic Centre of São Luís</site><states>Brazil</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>970</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1999</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/890</http_url><id_number>890</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_890.jpg</image_url><iso_code>br</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;Criterion (ii) Diamantina shows how explorers of the Brazilian territory, diamond prospectors, and representatives of the Crown were able to adapt European models to an American context in the 18th century, thus creating a culture that was faithful to its roots yet completely original. Criterion (iv) The urban and architectural group of Diamantina, perfectly integrated into a wild landscape, is a fine example of an adventurous spirit combined with a quest for refinement so typical of human nature.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>-18.2333333300</latitude><location>State of Minas Gerais</location><longitude>-43.6000000000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Diamantina, a colonial village set like a jewel in a necklace of inhospitable rocky mountains, recalls the exploits of diamond prospectors in the 18th century and testifies to the triumph of human cultural and artistic endeavour over the environment.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic Centre of the Town of Diamantina</site><states>Brazil</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1042</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1999</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/892</http_url><id_number>892</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_892.jpg</image_url><iso_code>br</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ix):&lt;/em&gt; The Brazilian Discovery Coast includes a number of areas containing the best and largest remaining examples of Atlantic forest in the northeast region of Brazil and contains high numbers of rare and endemic species.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (x):&lt;/em&gt; The site displays the biological richness and evolutionary history of the few remaining areas of Atlantic forest of northeast Brazil. The site reveals a pattern of evolution of great interest to science and importance for conservation. The fact that only these few scattered remnants of a once vast forest remain, make them an irreplaceable part of the world&amp;rsquo;s forest heritage.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>-16.5000000000</latitude><location>Atlantic Coast, states of Bahia and Espirito Santo, northeast Brazil</location><longitude>-39.2500000000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Reserves, in the states of Bahia and Esp&amp;iacute;rito Santo, consist of eight separate protected areas containing 112,000 ha of Atlantic forest and associated shrub (&lt;em&gt;restingas&lt;/em&gt;). The rainforests of Brazil&amp;rsquo;s Atlantic coast are the world&amp;rsquo;s richest in terms of biodiversity. The site contains a distinct range of species with a high level of endemism and reveals a pattern of evolution that is not only of great scientific interest but is also of importance for conservation.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Reserves</site><states>Brazil</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1044</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1999</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/893</http_url><id_number>893</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_893.jpg</image_url><iso_code>br</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Atlantic Forests (Southeast) contain the best and largest remaining examples of Atlantic forest in the southeast region of Brazil. The 25 protected areas that make up the site display the biological richness and evolutionary history of the few remaining areas of Atlantic forest of southeast Brazil. The area is also exceptionally diverse with high numbers of rare and endemic species. With its &amp;ldquo;mountains to the sea&amp;rdquo; attitudinal gradient, its estuary, wild rivers, karst and numerous waterfalls, the site also has exceptional scenic values.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>-24.1666700000</latitude><location>Atlantic coast, states of Parana and Sao Paolo</location><longitude>-48.0000000000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Atlantic Forest South-East Reserves, in the states of Paran&amp;aacute; and S&amp;atilde;o Paulo, contain some of the best and most extensive examples of Atlantic forest in Brazil. The 25 protected areas that make up the site (some 470,000 ha in total) display the biological wealth and evolutionary history of the last remaining Atlantic forests. From mountains covered by dense forests, down to wetlands, coastal islands with isolated mountains and dunes, the area comprises a rich natural environment of great scenic beauty.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Atlantic Forest South-East Reserves</site><states>Brazil</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1045</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2001</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/993</http_url><id_number>993</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_993.jpg</image_url><iso_code>br</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion ii:&lt;/em&gt; In its layout and architecture the historic town of Goiás is an outstanding example of a European town admirably adapted to the climatic, geographical and cultural constraints of central South America.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion iv:&lt;/em&gt; Goiás represents the evolution of a form of urban structure and architecture characteristic of the colonial settlement of South America, making full use of local materials and techniques and conserving its exceptional setting.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>-15.9332800000</latitude><location>State of Goiás</location><longitude>-50.1333600000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Goiás testifies to the occupation and colonization of the lands of central Brazil in the 18th and 19th centuries. The urban layout is an example of the organic development of a mining town, adapted to the conditions of the site. Although modest, both public and private architecture form a harmonious whole, thanks to the coherent use of local materials and vernacular techniques.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic Centre of the Town of Goiás</site><states>Brazil</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1157</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2000</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/998</http_url><id_number>998</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_998.jpg</image_url><iso_code>br</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ix):&lt;/em&gt; The varzea and igap&amp;oacute; forests, lakes, rivers, and islands of the proposed site together constitute physical and biological formations and demonstrate ongoing ecological processes in the development of terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. They include a constantly changing and evolving mosaic of river channels, lakes, and landforms. The floating (and constantly moving and changing) mats of vegetation typical of the varzea watercourses include a significant number of endemic species, including the largest array of electric fishes in the world. Anavilhanas contains the second largest archipelago of river islands in the Brazilian Amazon.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (x):&lt;/em&gt; The expanded property substantially increases the already impressive protection offered by Ja&amp;uacute; National Park to the biological diversity, habitats, and endangered species found in the Central Amazon region. The area is one of the Endemic Bird Areas of the World, is considered as one of the World Wildlife Fund&amp;rsquo;s 200 Priority Ecoregion for Conservation, and it is also a Centre of Plant Diversity. The expansion of Ja&amp;uacute; National Park to include an important sample of Varzea ecosystems, igap&amp;oacute; forests, lakes and channels significantly increases the representation of the aquatic biodiversity of the Central Amazon region. Expansion of the site also enhance the protection of key threatened species including giant arapaima fish, the Amazonian manatee, the black caiman, and two species of river dolphin.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>-2.3333333330</latitude><location>State of Amazonas</location><longitude>-62.0083333300</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2003</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Central Amazon Conservation Complex makes up the largest protected area in the Amazon Basin (over 6 million hectares) and is one of the planet&amp;rsquo;s richest regions in terms of biodiversity. It also includes an important sample of varzea ecosystems, igap&amp;oacute; forests, lakes and channels which take the form of a constantly evolving aquatic mosaic that is home to the largest array of electric fish in the world. The site protects key threatened species, including giant arapaima fish, the Amazonian manatee, the black caiman and two species of river dolphin.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Central Amazon Conservation Complex</site><states>Brazil</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1163</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2000</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/999</http_url><id_number>999</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_999.jpg</image_url><iso_code>br</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criteria (vii), (ix) and (x):&lt;/em&gt; The site is representative of the Greater Pantanal region. It demonstrates the on-going ecological and biological processes that occur in the Pantanal. The association of the Amolar Mountains with the dominant freshwater wetland ecosystems confers to the site a uniquely important ecological gradient as well as a dramatic landscape.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;The site plays a key role in the dispersion of nutrients to the entire basin and is the most important reserve for maintaining fish stocks in the Pantanal. The area preserves habitats representative of the Pantanal that contain a number of globally threatened species. The area is a refuge for fauna as it is the only area of the Pantanal that remains partially inundated during the dry season.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>-17.7166700000</latitude><location>Southwest of the State of Mato Grosso and Northwest of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, adjacent to the Brazil/Bolivian borders</location><longitude>-57.3833300000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Pantanal Conservation Area consists of a cluster of four protected areas with a total area of 187,818 ha. Located in western central Brazil at the south-west corner of the State of Mato Grosso, the site represents 1.3% of Brazil's Pantanal region, one of the world's largest freshwater wetland ecosystems. The headwaters of the region's two major river systems, the Cuiabá and the Paraguay rivers, are located here, and the abundance and diversity of its vegetation and animal life are spectacular.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Pantanal Conservation Area</site><states>Brazil</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1164</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2001</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1000</http_url><id_number>1000</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1000.jpg</image_url><iso_code>br</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ix):&lt;/em&gt; FNNMP/AdRBR represents over half the insular coastal waters of the Southern Atlantic Ocean. These highly productive waters provide feeding ground for species such as tuna, billfish, cetaceans, sharks, and marine turtles as they migrate to the Eastern Atlantic coast of Africa. An oasis of marine life in relatively barren, open ocean, the islands play a key role in the process of reproduction, dispersal and colonisation by marine organisms in the entire Tropical South Atlantic.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (vii)&lt;/em&gt;: Ba&amp;iacute;a dos Golfinhos is the only know place in the world with such a high population of resident dolphins and Atoll das Rocas demonstrates a spectacular seascape at low tide when the exposed reef surrounding shallow lagoons and tidal pools forms a natural aquarium. Both sites have also exceptional submarine landscapes that have been recognised worldwide by a number of specialised diving literatures.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (x):&lt;/em&gt; FNNMP/AdRBR is a key site for the protection of biodiversity and endangered species in the Southern Atlantic. Providing a large proportion of the insular habitat of the South Atlantic, the site is a repository for the maintenance of marine biodiversity at the ocean basin level. It is important for the conservation of endangered and threatened species of marine turtles, particularly the hawksbill turtle. The site accommodates the largest concentration of tropical seabirds to be found in the Western Atlantic Ocean, and is a Global Centre of Bird Endemism. The site also contains the only remaining sample of the Insular Atlantic Forest and the only oceanic mangrove in the South Atlantic region.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>-3.8579444440</latitude><location>Pernambuco and Rio Grande do Norte States</location><longitude>-32.4251111100</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Peaks of the Southern Atlantic submarine ridge form the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago and Rocas Atoll off the coast of Brazil. They represent a large proportion of the island surface of the South Atlantic and their rich waters are extremely important for the breeding and feeding of tuna, shark, turtle and marine mammals. The islands are home to the largest concentration of tropical seabirds in the Western Atlantic. Baia de Golfinhos has an exceptional population of resident dolphin and at low tide the Rocas Atoll provides a spectacular seascape of lagoons and tidal pools teeming with fish.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Brazilian Atlantic Islands: Fernando de Noronha and Atol das Rocas Reserves</site><states>Brazil</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1166</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2010</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1272</http_url><id_number>1272</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1272.jpg</image_url><iso_code>br</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-11.0161111111</latitude><location></location><longitude>-37.2100000000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;S&amp;atilde;o Francisco Square, in the town of S&amp;atilde;o Cristov&amp;atilde;o, is a quadrilateral open space surrounded by substantial early buildings such as S&amp;atilde;o Francisco Church and convent, the Church and Santa Casa da Miseric&amp;oacute;rdia, the Provincial Palace and the associated houses of different historical periods surrounding the Square. This monumental ensemble, together with the surrounding 18th- and 19th- century houses, creates an urban landscape which reflects the history of the town since its origin. The Franciscan complex is an example of the typical architecture of the religious order developed in north-eastern Brazil.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>São Francisco Square in the Town of São Cristóvão</site><states>Brazil</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1725</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(v)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2012</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1100</http_url><id_number>1100</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1100.jpg</image_url><iso_code>br</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-22.9477777778</latitude><location></location><longitude>-43.2913888889</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The site consists of an exceptional urban setting encompassing the key natural elements that have shaped and inspired the development of the city: from the highest points of the Tijuca National Park&amp;rsquo;s mountains down to the sea. They also include the Botanical Gardens, established in 1808, Corcovado Mountain with its celebrated statue of Christ, and the hills around Guanabara Bay, including the extensive designed landscapes along Copacabana Bay which have contributed to the outdoor living culture of this spectacular city. Rio de Janeiro is also recognized for the artistic inspiration it has provided to musicians, landscapers and urbanists.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea</site><states>Brazil</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1843</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2016</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1493</http_url><id_number>1493</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1493.jpg</image_url><iso_code>br</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-19.8519444444</latitude><location></location><longitude>-43.9736111111</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Pampulha Modern Ensemble was the centre of a visionary garden city project created in 1940 at Belo Horizonte, the capital of Minas Gerais State. Designed around an artificial lake, this cultural and leisure centre included a casino, a ballroom, the Golf Yacht Club and the São Francisco de Assis church. The buildings were designed by architect Oscar Niemeyer, in collaboration with innovative artists. The Ensemble comprises bold forms that exploit the plastic potential of concrete, while fusing architecture, landscape design, sculpture and painting into a harmonious whole. It reflects the influence of local traditions, the Brazilian climate and natural surroundings on the principles of modern architecture.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Pampulha Modern Ensemble</site><states>Brazil</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2077</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2017</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1548</http_url><id_number>1548</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1548.jpg</image_url><iso_code>br</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-22.8971111111</latitude><location></location><longitude>-43.1873944444</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Valongo Wharf Archaeological Site is located in central Rio de Janeiro and encompasses the entirety of Jornal do Comércio Square. It is in the former harbour area of Rio de Janeiro in which the old stone wharf was built for the landing of enslaved Africans reaching the South American continent from 1811 onwards. An estimated 900,000 Africans arrived in South America via Valongo. The site is composed of several archaeological layers, the lowest of which consists of floor pavings in &lt;em&gt;pé de moleque&lt;/em&gt; style, attributed to the original Valongo Wharf. It is the most important physical trace of the arrival of African slaves on the American continent.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Valongo Wharf Archaeological Site</site><states>Brazil</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2173</unique_number></row><row><category>Mixed</category><criteria_txt>(v)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2019</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1308</http_url><id_number>1308</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1308.jpg</image_url><iso_code>br</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-23.0186055556</latitude><location></location><longitude>-44.6853694444</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;&lt;span&gt;This natural-cultural landscape encompasses the historic centre of Paraty, one of Brazil's best-preserved coastal towns, four Brazilian Atlantic Forest protected natural areas, one of the world’s five key biodiversity hotspots, as well as part of the Serra da Bocaina mountain range and the Atlantic coastal region. Serra do Mar and Ilha Grande Bay is home to an impressive diversity of animal species, some of which are threatened, such as the jaguar (&lt;em&gt;Panthera onca&lt;/em&gt;), the white-lipped peccary (&lt;em&gt;Tayassu pecari&lt;/em&gt;) and several primate species, including the Southern Muriqui (&lt;em&gt;Brachyteles arachnoides&lt;/em&gt;), which are emblematic of the property. In the late 17th century, Paraty was the end-point of the &lt;em&gt;Caminho do Ouro&lt;/em&gt; (Gold Route), along which gold was shipped to Europe. Its port also served as an entry point for tools and African slaves, sent to work in the mines. A defence system was built to protect the wealth of the port and the town. The historic centre of Paraty has retained its 18th&lt;sup&gt; &lt;/sup&gt;century plan and much of its colonial architecture dating from the 18th&lt;sup&gt; &lt;/sup&gt;and early 19th centuries.&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Paraty and Ilha Grande – Culture and Biodiversity</site><states>Brazil</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2264</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2001</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1035</http_url><id_number>1035</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1035.jpg</image_url><iso_code>br</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ix)&lt;/em&gt;: CPA has played a key role for millenia in maintaining the biodiversity of the Cerrado Ecoregion. Due it its central location and altidudinal variation, it has acted as a relatively stable species refuge when climate change has caused the Cerrado to move north-south or east-west. This role as a species refuge is ongoing as Earth enters another period of climate change.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (x):&lt;/em&gt; CAS contains samples of all key habitats that characterise the Cerrado ecoregion – one of Earth’s oldest tropical ecosystems. It contains over 60% of all floral species and almost 80% of all vertebrate species described for the Cerrado. With the exception of the Giant Otter, all of the Cerrado’s endangered large mammals occur in the site. In addition, the site supports many rare small mammals and bird species that do not occur elsewhere in the Cerrado and a number of species new to science have been discovered in CPA.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>-14.0056944400</latitude><location>Central Brazil Plateau, State of Goiás</location><longitude>-47.6846111100</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The two sites included in the designation contain flora and fauna and key habitats that characterize the Cerrado – one of the world’s oldest and most diverse tropical ecosystems. For millennia, these sites have served as refuge for several species during periods of climate change and will be vital for maintaining the biodiversity of the Cerrado region during future climate fluctuations.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Cerrado Protected Areas: Chapada dos Veadeiros and Emas National Parks</site><states>Brazil</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2363</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1979</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/42</http_url><id_number>42</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_42.jpg</image_url><iso_code>bg</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>42.6500000000</latitude><location>Boyana district, Sofia</location><longitude>23.2666666700</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Located on the outskirts of Sofia, Boyana Church consists of three buildings. The eastern church was built in the 10th century, then enlarged at the beginning of the 13th century by Sebastocrator Kaloyan, who ordered a second two storey building to be erected next to it. The frescoes in this second church, painted in 1259, make it one of the most important collections of medieval paintings. The ensemble is completed by a third church, built at the beginning of the 19th century. This site is one of the most complete and perfectly preserved monuments of east European medieval art.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Boyana Church</site><states>Bulgaria</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>46</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1979</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/43</http_url><id_number>43</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_43.jpg</image_url><iso_code>bg</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>43.3000000000</latitude><location>Village of Madara, Province of Shumen</location><longitude>27.1500000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Madara Rider, representing the figure of a knight triumphing over a lion, is carved into a 100-m-high cliff near the village of Madara in north-east Bulgaria. Madara was the principal sacred place of the First Bulgarian Empire before Bulgaria&amp;rsquo;s conversion to Christianity in the 9th century. The inscriptions beside the sculpture tell of events that occurred between AD 705 and 801.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Madara Rider</site><states>Bulgaria</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>47</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1979</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/44</http_url><id_number>44</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_44.jpg</image_url><iso_code>bg</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>42.6166666700</latitude><location>Kazanlak, Province of Stara Zagora</location><longitude>25.4000000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Discovered in 1944, this tomb dates from the Hellenistic period, around the end of the 4th century BC. It is located near Seutopolis, the capital city of the Thracian king Seutes III, and is part of a large Thracian necropolis. The tholos has a narrow corridor and a round burial chamber, both decorated with murals representing Thracian burial rituals and culture. These paintings are Bulgaria&amp;rsquo;s best-preserved artistic masterpieces from the Hellenistic period.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak</site><states>Bulgaria</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>48</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1979</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/45</http_url><id_number>45</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_45.jpg</image_url><iso_code>bg</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>43.7166666700</latitude><location>Village of Ivanovo, 16 km from the town of Ruse, Province of Ruse</location><longitude>25.9666666700</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;In the valley of the Roussenski Lom River, in north east Bulgaria, a complex of rock-hewn churches, chapels, monasteries and cells developed in the vicinity of the village of Ivanovo. This is where the first hermits had dug out their cells and churches during the 12th century. The 14th-century murals testify to the exceptional skill of the artists belonging to the Tarnovo School of painting.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Rock-Hewn Churches of Ivanovo</site><states>Bulgaria</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>49</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1983</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/216</http_url><id_number>216</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_216.jpg</image_url><iso_code>bg</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>42.1166666700</latitude><location>On the slopes of Rila, the highest Balkan Peninsula Mountain, in the valley of the Rilska River, 29 km east of the Sofia-Thessaloniki Highway. Rila, Kyustendil Province</location><longitude>23.4000000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Rila Monastery was founded in the 10th century by St John of Rila, a hermit canonized by the Orthodox Church. His ascetic dwelling and tomb became a holy site and were transformed into a monastic complex which played an important role in the spiritual and social life of medieval Bulgaria. Destroyed by fire at the beginning of the 19th century, the complex was rebuilt between 1834 and 1862. A characteristic example of the Bulgarian Renaissance (18th&amp;ndash;19th centuries), the monument symbolizes the awareness of a Slavic cultural identity following centuries of occupation.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Rila Monastery</site><states>Bulgaria</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>239</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1983</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/217</http_url><id_number>217</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_217.jpg</image_url><iso_code>bg</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>42.6561100000</latitude><location>Burgas Province</location><longitude>27.7300000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Situated on a rocky peninsula on the Black Sea, the more than 3,000-year-old site of Nessebar was originally a Thracian settlement (Menebria). At the beginning of the 6th century BC, the city became a Greek colony. The city&amp;rsquo;s remains, which date mostly from the Hellenistic period, include the acropolis, a temple of Apollo, an agora and a wall from the Thracian fortifications. Among other monuments, the Stara Mitropolia Basilica and the fortress date from the Middle Ages, when this was one of the most important Byzantine towns on the west coast of the Black Sea. Wooden houses built in the 19th century are typical of the Black Sea architecture of the period.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Ancient City of Nessebar</site><states>Bulgaria</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>240</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1985</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/359</http_url><id_number>359</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_359.jpg</image_url><iso_code>bg</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>43.6666700000</latitude><location>Razgrad Province</location><longitude>26.6666700000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Discovered in 1982 near the village of Sveshtari, this 3rd-century BC Thracian tomb reflects the fundamental structural principles of Thracian cult buildings. The tomb has a unique architectural decor, with polychrome half-human, half-plant caryatids and painted murals. The 10 female figures carved in high relief on the walls of the central chamber and the decoration of the lunette in its vault are the only examples of this type found so far in the Thracian lands. It is a remarkable reminder of the culture of the Getes, a Thracian people who were in contact with the Hellenistic and Hyperborean worlds, according to ancient geographers.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Thracian Tomb of Sveshtari</site><states>Bulgaria</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>412</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(x)</criteria_txt><danger>P 1992-2003</danger><date_inscribed>1983</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/219</http_url><id_number>219</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_219.jpg</image_url><iso_code>bg</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>44.1144400000</latitude><location>Village of Srebarna, Province of Silistra; 16 km west of the town of Silistra and 1 km south of the Danube</location><longitude>27.0780600000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Srebarna Nature Reserve is a freshwater lake adjacent to the Danube and extending over 600 ha. It is the breeding ground of almost 100 species of birds, many of which are rare or endangered. Some 80 other bird species migrate and seek refuge there every winter. Among the most interesting bird species are the Dalmatian pelican, great egret, night heron, purple heron, glossy ibis and white spoonbill.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Srebarna Nature Reserve</site><states>Bulgaria</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1621</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(viii)(ix)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1983</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/225</http_url><id_number>225</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_225.jpg</image_url><iso_code>bg</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>41.7427222222</latitude><location></location><longitude>23.4304722222</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2010</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Spread over an area of over 27,000 ha, at an altitude between 1008 and 2914 m in the Pirin Mountains, southwest Bulgaria, the site comprises diverse limestone mountain landscapes with glacial lakes, waterfalls, caves and predominantly coniferous forests. It was added to the World Heritage List in 1983. The extension now covers an area of around 40,000 ha in the Pirin Mountains, and overlaps with the Pirin National Park, except for two areas developed for tourism (skiing). The dominant part of the extension is high mountain territory over 2000m in altitude, and covered mostly by alpine meadows, rocky screes and summits.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Pirin National Park</site><states>Bulgaria</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1641</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2009</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1225</http_url><id_number>1225</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1225.jpg</image_url><iso_code>bf</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>10.2500000000</latitude><location></location><longitude>-3.5833333333</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The 11,130m2 property, the first to be inscribed in the country, with its imposing stone walls is the best preserved of ten fortresses in the Lobi area and is part of a larger group of 100 stone enclosures that bear testimony to the power of the trans-Saharan gold trade. Situated near the borders of Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana and Togo, the ruins have recently been shown to be at least 1,000 years old. The settlement was occupied by the Lohron or Koulango peoples, who controlled the extraction and transformation of gold in the region when it reached its apogee from the 14th to the 17th century. Much mystery surrounds this site large parts of which have yet to be excavated. The settlement seems to have been abandoned during some periods during its long history. The property which was finally deserted in the early 19th century is expected to yield much more information.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Ruins of Loropéni</site><states>Burkina Faso</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1696</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2019</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1602</http_url><id_number>1602</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1602.jpg</image_url><iso_code>bf</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>12.5877583333</latitude><location></location><longitude>-3.3289861111</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>This property is composed of five elements located in different provinces of the country. It includes about fifteen standing, natural-draught furnaces, several other furnace structures, mines and traces of dwellings. Douroula, which dates back to the 8th century BCE, is the oldest evidence of the development of iron production found in Burkina Faso. The other components of the property – Tiwêga, Yamané, Kindibo and Békuy – illustrate the intensification of iron production during the second millennium CE. Even though iron ore reduction –obtaining iron from ore – is no longer practiced today, village blacksmiths still play a major role in supplying tools, while taking part in various rituals.</short_description><site>Ancient Ferrous Metallurgy Sites of Burkina Faso</site><states>Burkina Faso</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2290</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2009</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1310</http_url><id_number>1310</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1310.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cv</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>14.9151388889</latitude><location></location><longitude>-23.6051944444</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The town of Ribeira Grande, renamed Cidade Velha in the late 18th century, was the first European colonial outpost in the tropics. Located in the south of the island of Santiago, the town features some of the original street layout impressive remains including two churches, a royal fortress and Pillory Square with its ornate 16th century marble pillar.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Cidade Velha, Historic Centre of Ribeira Grande</site><states>Cabo Verde</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1600</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger>P 1992-2004</danger><date_inscribed>1992</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/668</http_url><id_number>668</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_668.jpg</image_url><iso_code>kh</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>13.4333333300</latitude><location>Province Siem Reap</location><longitude>103.8333333000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Angkor is one of the most important archaeological sites in South-East Asia. Stretching over some 400 km2, including forested area, Angkor Archaeological Park contains the magnificent remains of the different capitals of the Khmer Empire, from the 9th to the 15th century. They include the famous Temple of Angkor Wat and, at Angkor Thom, the Bayon Temple with its countless sculptural decorations. UNESCO has set up a wide-ranging programme to safeguard this symbolic site and its surroundings.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Angkor</site><states>Cambodia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>791</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2008</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1224</http_url><id_number>1224</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1224.jpg</image_url><iso_code>kh</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>14.3883333333</latitude><location></location><longitude>104.6838888889</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Situated on the edge of a plateau that dominates the plain of Cambodia, the Temple of Preah Vihear is dedicated to Shiva. The Temple is composed of a series of sanctuaries linked by a system of pavements and staircases over an 800 metre long axis and dates back to the first half of the 11th century AD. Nevertheless, its complex history can be traced to the 9th century, when the hermitage was founded. This site is particularly well preserved, mainly due to its remote location. The site is exceptional for the quality of its architecture, which is adapted to the natural environment and the religious function of the temple, as well as for the exceptional quality of its carved stone ornamentation.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Temple of Preah Vihear</site><states>Cambodia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1591</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2017</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1532</http_url><id_number>1532</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1532.jpg</image_url><iso_code>kh</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>12.8725000000</latitude><location></location><longitude>105.0430555556</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The archaeological site of Sambor Prei Kuk, “the temple in the richness of the forest” in the Khmer language, has been identified as Ishanapura, the capital of the Chenla Empire that flourished in the late 6th and early 7th centuries AD. The property comprises more than a hundred temples, ten of which are octagonal, unique specimens of their genre in South-East Asia. Decorated sandstone elements in the site are characteristic of the pre-Angkor decorative idiom, known as the Sambor Prei Kuk Style. Some of these elements, including lintels, pediments and colonnades, are true masterpieces. The art and architecture developed here became models for other parts of the region and lay the ground for the unique Khmer style of the Angkor period.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Temple Zone of Sambor Prei Kuk, Archaeological Site of Ancient Ishanapura</site><states>Cambodia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2140</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1987</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/407</http_url><id_number>407</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_407.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cm</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>3.0000000000</latitude><location>Provinces du Sud et de l’Est (Départments: du Dja-et-LOBO pour la partie Ouest, du Haut-Nyong pour la partie Est)</location><longitude>13.0000000000</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This is one of the largest and best-protected rainforests in Africa, with 90% of its area left undisturbed. Almost completely surrounded by the Dja River, which forms a natural boundary, the reserve is especially noted for its biodiversity and a wide variety of primates. It contains 107 mammal species, five of which are threatened.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Dja Faunal Reserve</site><states>Cameroon</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>470</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(viii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1978</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/24</http_url><id_number>24</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_24.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ca</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>61.5472222200</latitude><location>Northwest Territories</location><longitude>-125.5894444000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Located along the South Nahanni River, one of the most spectacular wild rivers in North America, this park contains deep canyons and huge waterfalls, as well as a unique limestone cave system. The park is also home to animals of the boreal forest, such as wolves, grizzly bears and caribou. Dall's sheep and mountain goats are found in the park's alpine environment.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Nahanni National Park</site><states>Canada</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>27</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(viii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1979</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/71</http_url><id_number>71</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_71.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ca</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>50.7677777800</latitude><location></location><longitude>-111.4922222000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;In addition to its particularly beautiful scenery, Dinosaur Provincial Park – located at the heart of the province of Alberta's badlands – contains some of the most important fossil discoveries ever made from the 'Age of Reptiles', in particular about 35 species of dinosaur, dating back some 75 million years.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Dinosaur Provincial Park</site><states>Canada</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>75</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1981</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/157</http_url><id_number>157</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_157.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ca</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>52.0950000000</latitude><location>Province of British Columbia</location><longitude>-131.2202778000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The village of Ninstints (Nans Dins) is located on a small island off the west coast of the Queen Charlotte Islands (Haida Gwaii). Remains of houses, together with carved mortuary and memorial poles, illustrate the Haida people's art and way of life. The site commemorates the living culture of the Haida people and their relationship to the land and sea, and offers a visual key to their oral traditions.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>S&lt;U&gt;G&lt;/U&gt;ang Gwaay</site><states>Canada</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>175</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1981</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/158</http_url><id_number>158</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_158.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ca</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>49.7494444400</latitude><location>Province of Alberta</location><longitude>-113.6238889000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;In south-west Alberta, the remains of marked trails and an aboriginal camp, and a tumulus where vast quantities of buffalo (American Bison) skeletons can still be found, are evidence of a custom practised by aboriginal peoples of the North American plains for nearly 6,000 years. Using their excellent knowledge of the topography and of buffalo behaviour, they killed their prey by chasing them over a precipice; the carcasses were later carved up in the camp below.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump</site><states>Canada</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>176</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1983</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/256</http_url><id_number>256</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_256.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ca</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>59.3583333300</latitude><location>Northwest Territories and Alberta</location><longitude>-112.2933333000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Situated on the plains in the north-central region of Canada, the park (which covers 44,807 km2) is home to North America's largest population of wild bison. It is also the natural nesting place of the whooping crane. Another of the park's attractions is the world's largest inland delta, located at the mouth of the Peace and Athabasca rivers.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Wood Buffalo National Park</site><states>Canada</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>286</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1985</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/300</http_url><id_number>300</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_300.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ca</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>46.8094444400</latitude><location>Province of Quebec, City of Quebec</location><longitude>-71.2105555600</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Québec was founded by the French explorer Champlain in the early 17th century. It is the only North American city to have preserved its ramparts, together with the numerous bastions, gates and defensive works which still surround Old Québec. The Upper Town, built on the cliff, has remained the religious and administrative centre, with its churches, convents and other monuments like the Dauphine Redoubt, the Citadel and Château Frontenac. Together with the Lower Town and its ancient districts, it forms an urban ensemble which is one of the best examples of a fortified colonial city.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic District of Old Québec</site><states>Canada</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>336</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(viii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1984</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/304</http_url><id_number>304</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_304.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ca</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>51.4247222200</latitude><location>Provinces of British Columbia and Alberta</location><longitude>-116.4797222000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>1990</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The contiguous national parks of Banff, Jasper, Kootenay and Yoho, as well as the Mount Robson, Mount Assiniboine and Hamber provincial parks, studded with mountain peaks, glaciers, lakes, waterfalls, canyons and limestone caves, form a striking mountain landscape. The Burgess Shale fossil site, well known for its fossil remains of soft-bodied marine animals, is also found there.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks</site><states>Canada</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>342</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(viii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1987</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/419</http_url><id_number>419</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_419.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ca</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>49.6125000000</latitude><location>Provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador</location><longitude>-57.5313888900</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Situated on the west coast of the island of Newfoundland, the park provides a rare example of the process of continental drift, where deep ocean crust and the rocks of the earth's mantle lie exposed. More recent glacial action has resulted in some spectacular scenery, with coastal lowland, alpine plateau, fjords, glacial valleys, sheer cliffs, waterfalls and many pristine lakes.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Gros Morne National Park</site><states>Canada</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>483</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(viii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1999</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/686</http_url><id_number>686</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_686.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ca</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (viii):&lt;/em&gt; In its representation of vertebrate life, Miguasha is the most outstanding fossil site in the world for illustrating the Devonian as the “Age of Fishes”. The area is of paramount importance in having the greatest number and best preserved fossil specimens found anywhere in the world of the lobe-finned fishes that gave rise to the first four-legged, air-breathing terrestrial vertebrates - the tetrapodes.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>48.1050000000</latitude><location>Gaspé Peninsula, Province of Quebec</location><longitude>-66.3530555600</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The palaeontological site of Miguasha National Park, in south-eastern Quebec on the southern coast of the Gaspé peninsula, is considered to be the world's most outstanding illustration of the Devonian Period known as the 'Age of Fishes'. Dating from 370 million years ago, the Upper Devonian Escuminac Formation represented here contains five of the six fossil fish groups associated with this period. Its significance stems from the discovery there of the highest number and best-preserved fossil specimens of the lobe-finned fishes that gave rise to the first four-legged, air-breathing terrestrial vertebrates – the tetrapods.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Miguasha National Park</site><states>Canada</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>812</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1995</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/741</http_url><id_number>741</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_741.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ca</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>44.3761111100</latitude><location>Nova Scotia</location><longitude>-64.3091666700</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Lunenburg is the best surviving example of a planned British colonial settlement in North America. Established in 1753, it has retained its original layout and overall appearance, based on a rectangular grid pattern drawn up in the home country. The inhabitants have managed to safeguard the city's identity throughout the centuries by preserving the wooden architecture of the houses, some of which date from the 18th century.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Old Town Lunenburg</site><states>Canada</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>875</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2007</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1221</http_url><id_number>1221</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1221.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ca</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>44.9943861111</latitude><location>Province of Ontario</location><longitude>-75.7651250000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Rideau Canal, a monumental early 19th-century construction covering 202 km of the Rideau and Cataraqui rivers from Ottawa south to Kingston Harbour on Lake Ontario, was built primarily for strategic military purposes at a time when Great Britain and the United States vied for control of the region. The site, one of the first canals to be designed specifically for steam-powered vessels, also features an ensemble of fortifications. It is the best-preserved example of a slackwater canal in North America, demonstrating the use of this European technology on a large scale. It is the only canal dating from the great North American canal-building era of the early 19th century to remain operational along its original line with most of its structures intact.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Rideau Canal</site><states>Canada</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1475</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(viii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2008</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1285</http_url><id_number>1285</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1285.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ca</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>45.7097222222</latitude><location></location><longitude>-64.4358333333</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Joggins Fossil Cliffs, a 689 ha palaeontological site along the coast of Nova Scotia (eastern Canada), have been described as the &amp;ldquo;coal age Gal&amp;aacute;pagos&amp;rdquo; due to their wealth of fossils from the Carboniferous period (354 to 290 million years ago). The rocks of this site are considered to be iconic for this period of the history of Earth and are the world&amp;rsquo;s thickest and most comprehensive record of the Pennsylvanian strata (dating back 318 to 303 million years) with the most complete known fossil record of terrestrial life from that time. These include the remains and tracks of very early animals and the rainforest in which they lived, left in situ, intact and undisturbed. With its 14.7 km of sea cliffs, low bluffs, rock platforms and beach, the site groups remains of three ecosystems: estuarine bay, floodplain rainforest and fire prone forested alluvial plain with freshwater pools. It offers the richest assemblage known of the fossil life in these three ecosystems with 96 genera and 148 species of fossils and 20 footprint groups. The site is listed as containing outstanding examples representing major stages in the history of Earth.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Joggins Fossil Cliffs</site><states>Canada</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1516</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(v)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2012</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1404</http_url><id_number>1404</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1404.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ca</iso_code><justification>&lt;p align="left"&gt;The Landscape of Grand Pr&amp;eacute; is an outstanding example and enduring model of the human capacity to overcome extraordinary natural challenges and cultural ordeals.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>45.1183333333</latitude><location></location><longitude>-64.3072222222</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Situated in the southern Minas Basin of Nova Scotia, the Grand Pr&amp;eacute; marshland and archaeological sites constitute a cultural landscape bearing testimony to the development of agricultural farmland using dykes and the &lt;em&gt;aboiteau &lt;/em&gt;wooden sluice system, started by the Acadians in the 17th century and further developed and maintained by the Planters and present-day inhabitants. Over 1,300&amp;nbsp;ha, the cultural landscape encompasses a large expanse of polder farmland and archaeological elements of the towns of Grand Pr&amp;eacute; and Hortonville, which were built by the Acadians and their successors. The landscape is an exceptional example of the adaptation of the first European settlers to the conditions of the North American Atlantic coast. The site &amp;ndash; marked by one of the most extreme tidal ranges in the world, averaging 11.6&amp;nbsp;m &amp;ndash; is also inscribed as a memorial to Acadian way of life and deportation, which started in 1755, known as the &lt;em&gt;Grand D&amp;eacute;rangement.&lt;/em&gt;&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Landscape of Grand Pré</site><states>Canada</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1828</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2013</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1412</http_url><id_number>1412</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1412.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ca</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>51.7269250000</latitude><location></location><longitude>-56.4295222222</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Red Bay, established by Basque mariners in the 16th century at the north-eastern tip of Canada on the shore of the Strait of Belle Isle is an archaeological site that provides the earliest, most complete and best preserved testimony of the European whaling tradition. Gran Baya, as it was called by those who founded the station in 1530s, was used as a base for coastal hunting, butchering, rendering of whale fat by heading to produce oil and storage. It became a major source of whale oil which was shipped to Europe where it was used for lighting. The site, which was used in the summer months, includes remains of rendering ovens, cooperages, wharves, temporary living quarters and a cemetery, together with underwater remains of vessels and whale bone deposits. The station was used for some 70 years, before the local whale population was depleted.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Red Bay Basque Whaling Station</site><states>Canada</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1874</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(viii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2016</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1497</http_url><id_number>1497</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1497.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ca</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>46.6350000000</latitude><location></location><longitude>-53.2111111111</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This fossil site is located at the south-eastern tip of the island of Newfoundland, in eastern Canada. It consists of a narrow, 17 km-long strip of rugged coastal cliffs. Of deep marine origin, these cliffs date to the Ediacaran Period (580-560 million years ago), representing the oldest known assemblages of large fossils anywhere. These fossils illustrate a watershed in the history of life on earth: the appearance of large, biologically complex organisms, after almost three billion years of micro-dominated evolution.  &lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Mistaken Point</site><states>Canada</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2083</unique_number></row><row><category>Mixed</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(vi)(ix)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2018</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1415</http_url><id_number>1415</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1415.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ca</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>51.8264166667</latitude><location></location><longitude>-95.4112777778</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Pimachiowin Aki ('The Land That Gives Life') is a landscape of rivers, lakes, wetlands, and boreal forest. It forms part of the ancestral home of the Anishinaabeg, an indigenous people living from fishing, hunting and gathering. The site encompasses the traditional lands of four Anishinaabeg communities (Bloodvein River, Little Grand Rapids, Pauingassi and Poplar River). It is an exceptional example of the cultural tradition of Ji-ganawendamang Gidakiiminaan ('keeping the land'), which consists of honouring the gifts of the Creator, respecting all forms of life, and maintaining harmonious relations with others. A complex network of livelihood sites, habitation sites, travel routes and ceremonial sites, often linked by waterways, provides testimony to this ancient and continuing tradition.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Pimachiowin Aki</site><states>Canada</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2214</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1978</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/4</http_url><id_number>4</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_4.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ca</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>51.4666666700</latitude><location>Province of Newfoundland and Labrador</location><longitude>-55.6166666700</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;At the tip of the Great Northern Peninsula of the island of Newfoundland, the remains of an 11th-century Viking settlement are evidence of the first European presence in North America. The excavated remains of wood-framed peat-turf buildings are similar to those found in Norse Greenland and Iceland.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>L’Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site</site><states>Canada</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2248</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2019</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1597</http_url><id_number>1597</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1597.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ca</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>49.0750000000</latitude><location></location><longitude>-111.6333333333</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The property is located on the northern edge of the semi-arid Great Plains of North America, on the border between Canada and the United States of America. The Milk River Valley dominates the topography of this cultural landscape, which is characterized by a concentration of pillars or &lt;em&gt;hoodoos&lt;/em&gt; – columns of rock sculpted by erosion into spectacular shapes. The Blackfoot Confederacy (Siksikáíítsitapi) left engravings and paintings on the sandstone walls of the Milk River Valley, bearing testimony to messages from Sacred Beings. Dated &lt;em&gt;in situ&lt;/em&gt; archaeological remains cover a period between ca. 4,500 BP - 3,500 years BP and the Contact Period. This landscape is considered sacred to the Blackfoot people, and their centuries-old traditions are perpetuated through ceremonies and in enduring respect for the places.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Writing-on-Stone / Áísínai’pi</site><states>Canada</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2295</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger>Y 1997</danger><date_inscribed>1988</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/475</http_url><id_number>475</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_475.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cf</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>9.0000000000</latitude><location>Bamingui-Bangoran</location><longitude>21.5000000000</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The importance of this park derives from its wealth of flora and fauna. Its vast savannahs are home to a wide variety of species: black rhinoceroses, elephants, cheetahs, leopards, wild dogs, red-fronted gazelles and buffalo, while various types of waterfowl are to be found in the northern floodplains.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park</site><states>Central African Republic</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>553</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2012</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1400</http_url><id_number>1400</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1400.jpg</image_url><iso_code>td</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>19.0550000000</latitude><location></location><longitude>20.5055555556</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The site includes eighteen interconnected lakes in the hyper arid Ennedi region of the Sahara desert covering an area of 62,808&amp;nbsp;ha. It constitutes an exceptional natural landscape of great beauty with striking colours and shapes. The saline, hyper saline and freshwater lakes are supplied by groundwater and are found in two groups 40&amp;nbsp;km apart. Ounianga Kebir comprises four lakes, the largest of which, Yoan, covers an area of 358&amp;nbsp;ha and is 27&amp;nbsp;m deep. Its highly saline waters only sustain algae and some microorganisms. The second group, Ounianga Serir, comprises fourteen lakes separated by sand dunes. Floating reeds cover almost half the surface of these lakes reducing evaporation. At 436&amp;nbsp;ha, Lake Teli has the largest surface area but is less than 10&amp;nbsp;m deep. With their high quality freshwater, some of these lakes are home to aquatic fauna, particularly fish.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Lakes of Ounianga</site><states>Chad</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1824</unique_number></row><row><category>Mixed</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(vii)(ix)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2016</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1475</http_url><id_number>1475</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1475.jpg</image_url><iso_code>td</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>17.0416666667</latitude><location></location><longitude>21.8627777778</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;In the northeast of the country, the sandstone Ennedi Massif has been sculpted over time by water and wind erosion into a plateau featuring canyons and valleys that present a spectacular landscape marked by cliffs, natural arches and pitons. In the largest canyons, the permanent presence of water plays an essential role in the Massif’s ecosystem, sustaining flora and fauna as well as human life. Thousands of images have been painted and carved into the rock surface of caves, canyons and shelters, presenting one of the largest ensembles of rock art in the Sahara.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Ennedi Massif: Natural and Cultural Landscape</site><states>Chad</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2091</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1995</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/715</http_url><id_number>715</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_715.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cl</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-27.1500000000</latitude><location>Easter Island province of the Valparaíso Region</location><longitude>-109.4500000000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Rapa Nui, the indigenous name of Easter Island, bears witness to a unique cultural phenomenon. A society of Polynesian origin that settled there c. A.D. 300 established a powerful, imaginative and original tradition of monumental sculpture and architecture, free from any external influence. From the 10th to the 16th century this society built shrines and erected enormous stone figures known as &lt;em&gt;moai&lt;/em&gt; , which created an unrivalled cultural landscape that continues to fascinate people throughout the world.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Rapa Nui National Park</site><states>Chile</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>846</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2003</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/959</http_url><id_number>959</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_959.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cl</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;Criterion iii: Valpara&amp;iacute;so is an exceptional testimony to the early phase of globalisation in the late 19th century, when it became the leading merchant port on the sea routes of the Pacific coast of South America.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>-33.0406388900</latitude><location>Fifth Region, Province Valparaíso</location><longitude>-71.6280000000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The colonial city of Valpara&amp;iacute;so presents an excellent example of late 19th-century urban and architectural development in Latin America. In its natural amphitheatre-like setting, the city is characterized by a vernacular urban fabric adapted to the hillsides that are dotted with a great variety of church spires. It contrasts with the geometrical layout utilized in the plain. The city has well preserved its interesting early industrial infrastructures, such as the numerous &amp;lsquo;elevators&amp;rsquo; on the steep hillsides.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic Quarter of the Seaport City of Valparaíso</site><states>Chile</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1123</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2006</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1214</http_url><id_number>1214</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1214.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cl</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-34.0844444444</latitude><location>Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins Region, Province of Cachapoal, Municipality of Machali</location><longitude>-70.3827777777</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Situated at 2,000 m in the Andes, 60 km to the east of Rancagua, in an environment marked by extremes of climate, Sewell Mining Town was built by the Braden Copper company in 1905 to house workers at what was to become the world&amp;rsquo;s largest underground copper mine, El Teniente. It is an outstanding example of the company towns that were born in many remote parts of the world from the fusion of local labour and resources from an industrialized nation, to mine and process high-value natural resources. The town was built on a terrain too steep for wheeled vehicles around a large central staircase rising from the railway station. Along its route formal squares of irregular shape with ornamental trees and plants constituted the main public spaces or squares of the town. The buildings lining the streets are timber, often painted in vivid green, yellow, red and blue. At its peak Sewell numbered 15,000 inhabitants, but was largely abandoned in the 1970s.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Sewell Mining Town</site><states>Chile</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1391</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2005</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1178</http_url><id_number>1178</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1178.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cl</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii): &lt;/em&gt;The development of the saltpeter industry reflects the combined knowledge, skills, technology, and financial investment of a diverse community of people who were brought together from around South America, and from Europe. The saltpeter industry became a huge cultural exchange complex where ideas were quickly absorbed and exploited. The two works represent this process.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii): &lt;/em&gt;The saltpeter mines and their associated company towns developed into an extensive and very distinct urban community with its own language, organisation, customs, and creative expressions, as well as displaying technical entrepreneurship. The two nominated works represent this distinctive culture.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv): &lt;/em&gt;The saltpeter mines in the north of Chile together became the largest producers of natural saltpeter in the world, transforming the Pampa and indirectly the agricultural lands that benefited from the fertilisers the works produced. The two works represent this transformation process.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>-20.2058200000</latitude><location>Province of Iquique</location><longitude>-69.7940600000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Humberstone and Santa Laura works contain over 200 former saltpeter works where workers from Chile, Peru and Bolivia lived in company towns and forged a distinctive communal pampinos culture. That culture is manifest in their rich language, creativity, and solidarity, and, above all, in their pioneering struggle for social justice, which had a profound impact on social history. Situated in the remote Pampas, one of the driest deserts on Earth, thousands of pampinos lived and worked in this hostile environment for over 60 years, from 1880, to process the largest deposit of saltpeter in the world, producing the fertilizer sodium nitrate that was to transform agricultural lands in North and South America, and in Europe, and produce great wealth for Chile. Because of the vulnerability of the structures and the impact of a recent earthquake, the site was also placed on the List of World Heritage in Danger to help mobilize resources for its conservation.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works</site><states>Chile</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2364</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2000</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/971</http_url><id_number>971</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_971.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cl</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;Criterion (ii): The churches of Chiloé are outstanding examples of the successful fusion of European and indigenous cultural traditions to produce a unique form of wooden architecture.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;Criterion (iii): The mestizo culture resulting from Jesuit missionary activities in the 17th and 18th centuries has survived intact in the Chiloé archipelago, and achieves its highest expression in the outstanding wooden churches.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>-42.5000000000</latitude><location>Municipalities of Castro, Chonchi, Dalcahue, Puqueldón, Quemchi, and Quinchao, Chiloé Province, X Region de los Lagos</location><longitude>-73.7666666700</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Churches of Chiloé represent a unique example in Latin America of an outstanding form of ecclesiastical wooden architecture. They represent a tradition initiated by the Jesuit Peripatetic Mission in the 17th and 18th centuries, continued and enriched by the Franciscans during the 19th century and still prevailing today. These churches embody the intangible richness of the Chiloé Archipelago, and bear witness to a successful fusion of indigenous and European culture, the full integration of its architecture in the landscape and environment, as well as to the spiritual values of the communities.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Churches of Chiloé</site><states>Chile</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2365</unique_number></row><row><category>Mixed</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(v)(vi)(vii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1987</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/437</http_url><id_number>437</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_437.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>36.2666700000</latitude><location>Spanning the cities of Tai’an and Jinan in central Shandong Province with the main peak in the city of Tai’an</location><longitude>117.1000000000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The sacred Mount Tai ('shan' means 'mountain') was the object of an imperial cult for nearly 2,000 years, and the artistic masterpieces found there are in perfect harmony with the natural landscape. It has always been a source of inspiration for Chinese artists and scholars and symbolizes ancient Chinese civilizations and beliefs.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Mount Taishan</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>507</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1987</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/438</http_url><id_number>438</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_438.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>40.4166700000</latitude><location>Liaoning, Jilin, Hebei, Beijing, Tianjin, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Ningxia, Gansu, Xinjiang, Shandong, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Sichuan, Qinghai provinces, municipalities and autonomous Regions</location><longitude>116.0833300000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;In c. 220 B.C., under Qin Shi Huang, sections of earlier fortifications were joined together to form a united defence system against invasions from the north. Construction continued up to the Ming dynasty (1368&amp;ndash;1644), when the Great Wall became the world's largest military structure. Its historic and strategic importance is matched only by its architectural significance.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>The Great Wall</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>508</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1987</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/439</http_url><id_number>439</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_439.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (i):&lt;/em&gt; The Imperial Palaces represent masterpieces in the development of imperial palace architecture in China.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; The architecture of the Imperial Palace complexes, particularly in Shenyang, exhibits an important interchange of influences of traditional architecture and Chinese palace architecture particularly in the 17th and 18th centuries.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii):&lt;/em&gt; The Imperial Palaces bear exceptional testimony to Chinese civilisation at the time of the Ming and Qing dynasties, being true reserves of landscapes, architecture, furnishings and objects of art, as well as carrying exceptional evidence to the living traditions and the customs of Shamanism practised by the Manchu people for centuries.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; The Imperial Palaces provide outstanding examples of the greatest palatial architectural ensembles in China. They illustrate the grandeur of the imperial institution from the Qing Dynasty to the earlier Ming and Yuan dynasties, as well as Manchu traditions, and present evidence on the evolution of this architecture in the 17th and 18th centuries.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>41.7941666700</latitude><location></location><longitude>123.4469444000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2004</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Seat of supreme power for over five centuries (1416-1911), the Forbidden City in Beijing, with its landscaped gardens and many buildings (whose nearly 10,000 rooms contain furniture and works of art), constitutes a priceless testimony to Chinese civilization during the Ming and Qing dynasties. The Imperial Palace of the Qing Dynasty in Shenyang consists of 114 buildings constructed between 1625–26 and 1783. It contains an important library and testifies to the foundation of the last dynasty that ruled China, before it expanded its power to the centre of the country and moved the capital to Beijing. This palace then became auxiliary to the Imperial Palace in Beijing. This remarkable architectural edifice offers important historical testimony to the history of the Qing Dynasty and to the cultural traditions of the Manchu and other tribes in the north of China.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Imperial Palaces of the Ming and Qing Dynasties in Beijing and Shenyang</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>510</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(v)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1987</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/440</http_url><id_number>440</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_440.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>40.1333300000</latitude><location>Dunhuang County, Gansu Province. At the eastern foot of Mount Mingsha, 25 kilometres southeast of the County seat.</location><longitude>94.8166700000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Situated at a strategic point along the Silk Route, at the crossroads of trade as well as religious, cultural and intellectual influences, the 492 cells and cave sanctuaries in Mogao are famous for their statues and wall paintings, spanning 1,000 years of Buddhist art.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Mogao Caves</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>511</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1987</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/441</http_url><id_number>441</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_441.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>34.3833333300</latitude><location>Lintong County, Shaanxi Province</location><longitude>109.1000000000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;No doubt thousands of statues still remain to be unearthed at this archaeological site, which was not discovered until 1974. Qin (d. 210 B.C.), the first unifier of China, is buried, surrounded by the famous terracotta warriors, at the centre of a complex designed to mirror the urban plan of the capital, Xianyan. The small figures are all different; with their horses, chariots and weapons, they are masterpieces of realism and also of great historical interest.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>512</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1987</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/449</http_url><id_number>449</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_449.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>39.7333333300</latitude><location>Fangshanxian County, Beijing Municipality</location><longitude>115.9166667000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Scientific work at the site, which lies 42 km south-west of Beijing, is still underway. So far, it has led to the discovery of the remains of &lt;em&gt;Sinanthropus pekinensis&lt;/em&gt;, who lived in the Middle Pleistocene, along with various objects, and remains of &lt;em&gt;Homo sapiens sapiens&lt;/em&gt; dating as far back as 18,000&amp;ndash;11,000 B.C. The site is not only an exceptional reminder of the prehistorical human societies of the Asian continent, but also illustrates the process of evolution.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>521</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1992</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/637</http_url><id_number>637</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_637.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>33.0833300000</latitude><location>Nanping County, Sichuan Province</location><longitude>103.9166700000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Stretching over 72,000 ha in the northern part of Sichuan Province, the jagged Jiuzhaigou valley reaches a height of more than 4,800 m, thus comprising a series of diverse forest ecosystems. Its superb landscapes are particularly interesting for their series of narrow conic karst land forms and spectacular waterfalls. Some 140 bird species also inhabit the valley, as well as a number of endangered plant and animal species, including the giant panda and the Sichuan takin.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Jiuzhaigou Valley Scenic and Historic Interest Area</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>757</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1992</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/638</http_url><id_number>638</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_638.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>32.7541700000</latitude><location>Songpan County, Sichuan Province</location><longitude>103.8222200000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Situated in the north-west of Sichaun Province, the Huanglong valley is made up of snow-capped peaks and the easternmost of all the Chinese glaciers. In addition to its mountain landscape, diverse forest ecosystems can be found, as well as spectacular limestone formations, waterfalls and hot springs. The area also has a population of endangered animals, including the giant panda and the Sichuan golden snub-nosed monkey.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Huanglong Scenic and Historic Interest Area</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>758</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1992</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/640</http_url><id_number>640</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_640.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>29.3333300000</latitude><location>The Wulingyuan District of the City of Dayong, Hunan Province</location><longitude>110.5000000000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;A spectacular area stretching over more than 26,000 ha in China's Hunan Province, the site is dominated by more than 3,000 narrow sandstone pillars and peaks, many over 200 m high. Between the peaks lie ravines and gorges with streams, pools and waterfalls, some 40 caves, and two large natural bridges. In addition to the striking beauty of the landscape, the region is also noted for the fact that it is home to a number of endangered plant and animal species.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Wulingyuan Scenic and Historic Interest Area</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>760</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1994</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/703</http_url><id_number>703</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_703.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>40.9869400000</latitude><location>Chengde City, Hebei Province</location><longitude>117.9383300000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Mountain Resort (the Qing dynasty's summer palace), in Hebei Province, was built between 1703 and 1792. It is a vast complex of palaces and administrative and ceremonial buildings. Temples of various architectural styles and imperial gardens blend harmoniously into a landscape of lakes, pastureland and forests. In addition to its aesthetic interest, the Mountain Resort is a rare historic vestige of the final development of feudal society in China.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Mountain Resort and its Outlying Temples, Chengde</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>831</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1994</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/704</http_url><id_number>704</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_704.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>35.6116700000</latitude><location>Qufu City, Shandong Province</location><longitude>116.9750000000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The temple, cemetery and family mansion of Confucius, the great philosopher, politician and educator of the 6th&amp;ndash;5th centuries B.C., are located at Qufu, in Shandong Province. Built to commemorate him in 478 B.C., the temple has been destroyed and reconstructed over the centuries; today it comprises more than 100 buildings. The cemetery contains Confucius' tomb and the remains of more than 100,000 of his descendants. The small house of the Kong family developed into a gigantic aristocratic residence, of which 152 buildings remain. The Qufu complex of monuments has retained its outstanding artistic and historic character due to the devotion of successive Chinese emperors over more than 2,000 years.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Temple and Cemetery of Confucius and the Kong Family Mansion in Qufu</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>832</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1994</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/705</http_url><id_number>705</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_705.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>32.4666700000</latitude><location>Danjiangkou City, Hubei Province</location><longitude>111.0000000000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The palaces and temples which form the nucleus of this group of secular and religious buildings exemplify the architectural and artistic achievements of China's Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties. Situated in the scenic valleys and on the slopes of the Wudang mountains in Hubei Province, the site, which was built as an organized complex during the Ming dynasty (14th&amp;ndash;17th centuries), contains Taoist buildings from as early as the 7th century. It represents the highest standards of Chinese art and architecture over a period of nearly 1,000 years.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Ancient Building Complex in the Wudang Mountains</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>833</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1994</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/707</http_url><id_number>707</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_707.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>29.6579200000</latitude><location>Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region</location><longitude>91.1171700000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2000, 2001</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Potala Palace, winter palace of the Dalai Lama since the 7th century, symbolizes Tibetan Buddhism and its central role in the traditional administration of Tibet. The complex, comprising the White and Red Palaces with their ancillary buildings, is built on Red Mountain in the centre of Lhasa Valley, at an altitude of 3,700m. Also founded in the 7th century, the Jokhang Temple Monastery is an exceptional Buddhist religious complex. Norbulingka, the Dalai Lama's former summer palace, constructed in the 18th century, is a masterpiece of Tibetan art. The beauty and originality of the architecture of these three sites, their rich ornamentation and harmonious integration in a striking landscape, add to their historic and religious interest.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic Ensemble of the Potala Palace, Lhasa</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>837</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1996</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/778</http_url><id_number>778</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_778.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee decided to inscribe this property on the basis of cultural cultural criteria (ii), (iii), (iv) and (vi) as a cultural landscape of outstanding aesthetic value and its powerful associations with Chinese spiritual and cultural life.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>29.4333333300</latitude><location>Jiujiang City, Jiangxi Province</location><longitude>115.8666667000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Mount Lushan, in Jiangxi, is one of the spiritual centres of Chinese civilization. Buddhist and Taoist temples, along with landmarks of Confucianism, where the most eminent masters taught, blend effortlessly into a strikingly beautiful landscape which has inspired countless artists who developed the aesthetic approach to nature found in Chinese culture.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Lushan National Park</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>921</unique_number></row><row><category>Mixed</category><criteria_txt>(iv)(vi)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1996</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/779</http_url><id_number>779</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_779.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee decided to inscribe the nominated property under cultural criteria (iv) and (vi) considering the area of Mt. Emei is of exceptional cultural significance, since it is the place where Buddhism first became established on Chinese territory and from where it spread widely throughout the east. It is also an area of natural beauty into which the human element has been integrated, and natural criterion (x) for its high plant species diversity with a large number of endemic species. It also underlined the importance of the link between the tangible and intangible, the natural and the cultural.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>29.5449000000</latitude><location>Eimeishan City, Sichuan Province</location><longitude>103.7692500000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The first Buddhist temple in China was built here in Sichuan Province in the 1st century A.D. in the beautiful surroundings of the summit Mount Emei. The addition of other temples turned the site into one of Buddhism's holiest sites. Over the centuries, the cultural treasures grew in number. The most remarkable is the Giant Buddha of Leshan, carved out of a hillside in the 8th century and looking down on the confluence of three rivers. At 71 m high, it is the largest Buddha in the world. Mount Emei is also notable for its exceptionally diverse vegetation, ranging from subtropical to subalpine pine forests. Some of the trees there are more than 1,000 years old.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Mount Emei Scenic Area, including Leshan Giant Buddha Scenic Area</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>922</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1997</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/812</http_url><id_number>812</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_812.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee decided to inscribe this property on the basis of criteria (ii), (iii) and (iv), considering that the Ancient City of Ping Yao is an outstanding example of a Han Chinese city of the Ming and Qing Dynasties (14th-20th centuries) that has retained all its features to an exceptional degree and in doing so provides a remarkably complete picture of cultural, social, economic, and religious development during one of the most seminal periods of Chinese history.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>37.2013900000</latitude><location>Ping Yao County, Shan Xi Province</location><longitude>112.1544400000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Ping Yao is an exceptionally well-preserved example of a traditional Han Chinese city, founded in the 14th century. Its urban fabric shows the evolution of architectural styles and town planning in Imperial China over five centuries. Of special interest are the imposing buildings associated with banking, for which Ping Yao was the major centre for the whole of China in the 19th and early 20th centuries.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Ancient City of Ping Yao</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>959</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1997</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/813</http_url><id_number>813</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_813.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee decided to inscribe this property on the basis of criteria (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) and (v), considering that the four classical gardens of Suzhou are masterpieces of Chinese landscape garden design in which art, nature, and ideas are integrated perfectly to create ensembles of great beauty and peaceful harmony, and four gardens are integral to the entire historic urban plan.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>31.3166666700</latitude><location>Suzhou City, Jiangsu Province</location><longitude>120.4500000000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2000</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Classical Chinese garden design, which seeks to recreate natural landscapes in miniature, is nowhere better illustrated than in the nine gardens in the historic city of Suzhou. They are generally acknowledged to be masterpieces of the genre. Dating from the 11th-19th century, the gardens reflect the profound metaphysical importance of natural beauty in Chinese culture in their meticulous design.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Classical Gardens of Suzhou</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>961</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1998</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/880</http_url><id_number>880</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_880.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;Criterion i: The Summer Palace in Beijing is an outstanding expression of the creative art of Chinese landscape garden design, incorporating the works of humankind and nature in a harmonious whole. Criterion ii: The Summer Palace epitomizes the philosophy and practice of Chinese garden design, which played a key role in the development of this cultural form throughout the East. Criterion iii: The imperial Chinese garden, illustrated by the Summer Palace, is a potent symbol of one of the major world civilizations.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>39.9105555600</latitude><location>10 km northwest of Beijing</location><longitude>116.1411111000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Summer Palace in Beijing &amp;ndash; first built in 1750, largely destroyed in the war of 1860 and restored on its original foundations in 1886 &amp;ndash; is a masterpiece of Chinese landscape garden design. The natural landscape of hills and open water is combined with artificial features such as pavilions, halls, palaces, temples and bridges to form a harmonious ensemble of outstanding aesthetic value.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Summer Palace, an Imperial Garden in Beijing</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1032</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1998</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/881</http_url><id_number>881</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_881.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;Criterion i: The Temple of Heaven is a masterpiece of architecture and landscape design which simply and graphically illustrates a cosmogony of great importance for the evolution of one of the world&amp;rsquo;s great civilizations. Criterion ii: The symbolic layout and design of the Temple of Heaven had a profound influence on architecture and planning in the Far East over many centuries. Criterion iii: For more than two thousand years China was ruled by a series of feudal dynasties, the legitimacy of which is symbolized by the design and layout of the Temple of Heaven.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>39.8455555600</latitude><location>Tiantan Park, Beijing</location><longitude>116.4447222000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Temple of Heaven, founded in the first half of the 15th century, is a dignified complex of fine cult buildings set in gardens and surrounded by historic pine woods. In its overall layout and that of its individual buildings, it symbolizes the relationship between earth and heaven &amp;ndash; the human world and God's world &amp;ndash; which stands at the heart of Chinese cosmogony, and also the special role played by the emperors within that relationship.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Temple of Heaven: an Imperial Sacrificial Altar in Beijing</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1033</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1999</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/912</http_url><id_number>912</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_912.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;Criterion (i): The Dazu carvings represent the pinnacle of Chinese rock art for their high aesthetic quality and their diversity of style and subject matter.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;Criterion (ii): Tantric Buddhism from India and the Chinese Taoist and Confucian beliefs came together at Dazu to create a highly original and influential manifestation of spiritual harmony.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;Criterion (iii): The eclectic nature of religious belief in later Imperial China is given material expression in the exceptional artistic heritage of the Dazu rock art.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>29.7011100000</latitude><location>Dazu County, Chongqing Municipality</location><longitude>105.7050000000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The steep hillsides of the Dazu area contain an exceptional series of rock carvings dating from the 9th to the 13th century. They are remarkable for their aesthetic quality, their rich diversity of subject matter, both secular and religious, and the light that they shed on everyday life in China during this period. They provide outstanding evidence of the harmonious synthesis of Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Dazu Rock Carvings</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1065</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2000</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1001</http_url><id_number>1001</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1001.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;Criterion (ii): The Dujiangyan Irrigation System, begun in the 2nd century BCE, is a major landmark in the development of water management and technology, and is still discharging its functions perfectly.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;Criterion (iv): The immense advances in science and technology achieved in ancient China are graphically illustrated by the Dujiangyan Irrigation System.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;Criterion (vi): The temples of Mount Qingcheng are closely associated with the foundation of Taoism, one of the most influential religions of East Asia over a long period of history.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>31.0016700000</latitude><location>Dujiangyan City, Sichuan Province</location><longitude>103.6052800000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Construction of the Dujiangyan irrigation system began in the 3rd century B.C. This system still controls the waters of the Minjiang River and distributes it to the fertile farmland of the Chengdu plains. Mount Qingcheng was the birthplace of Taoism, which is celebrated in a series of ancient temples.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Mount Qingcheng and the Dujiangyan Irrigation System</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1167</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2000</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1002</http_url><id_number>1002</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1002.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;Criterion (iii): The villages of Xidi and Hongcun are graphic illustrations of a type of human settlement created during a feudal period and based on a prosperous trading economy.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;Criterion (iv): In their buildings and their street patterns, the two villages of southern Anhui reflect the socio-economic structure of a long-lived settled period of Chinese history.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;Criterion (v): The traditional non-urban settlements of China, which have to a very large extent disappeared during the past century, are exceptionally well preserved in the villages of Xidi and Hongcun.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>29.9044444400</latitude><location>Yi county, Huangshan city, Anhui Province</location><longitude>117.9875000000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The two traditional villages of Xidi and Hongcun preserve to a remarkable extent the appearance of non-urban settlements of a type that largely disappeared or was transformed during the last century. Their street plan, their architecture and decoration, and the integration of houses with comprehensive water systems are unique surviving examples.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Ancient Villages in Southern Anhui – Xidi and Hongcun</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1168</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2000</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1003</http_url><id_number>1003</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1003.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;Criterion (i): The sculptures of the Longmen Grottoes are an outstanding manifestation of human artistic creativity.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;Criterion (ii): The Longmen Grottoes illustrate the perfection of a long-established art form which was to play a highly significant role in the cultural evolution of this region of Asia.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;Criterion (iii): The high cultural level and sophisticated society of Tang Dynasty China is encapsulated in the exceptional stone carvings of the Longmen Grottoes.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>34.4666666700</latitude><location>Luoyang City, Henan Province</location><longitude>112.4666667000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The grottoes and niches of Longmen contain the largest and most impressive collection of Chinese art of the late Northern Wei and Tang Dynasties (316-907). These works, entirely devoted to the Buddhist religion, represent the high point of Chinese stone carving.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Longmen Grottoes</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1169</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2000</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1004</http_url><id_number>1004</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1004.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (i):&lt;/em&gt; The harmonious integration of remarkable architectural groups in a natural environment chosen to meet the criteria of geomancy (Fengshui) makes the Ming and Qing Imperial Tombs masterpieces of human creative genius.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criteria (ii), (iii) and (iv):&lt;/em&gt; The imperial mausolea are outstanding testimony to a cultural and architectural tradition that for over five hundred years dominated this part of the world; by reason of their integration into the natural environment, they make up a unique ensemble of cultural landscapes.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (vi):&lt;/em&gt; The Ming and Qing Tombs are dazzling illustrations of the beliefs, world view, and geomantic theories of Fengshui prevalent in feudal China. They have served as burial edifices for illustrious personages and as the theatre for major events that have marked the history of China.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>41.7072222200</latitude><location>Nanjing City, Jiangsu Province (Xiaoling Tomb); Changping District, Beijing (Ming Tombs)</location><longitude>124.7938889000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2003, 2004</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;It represents the addition of three Imperial Tombs of the Qing Dynasty in Liaoning to the Ming tombs inscribed in 2000 and 2003. The Three Imperial Tombs of the Qing Dynasty in Liaoning Province include the Yongling Tomb, the Fuling Tomb, and the Zhaoling Tomb, all built in the 17th century. Constructed for the founding emperors of the Qing Dynasty and their ancestors, the tombs follow the precepts of traditional Chinese geomancy and fengshui theory. They feature rich decoration of stone statues and carvings and tiles with dragon motifs, illustrating the development of the funerary architecture of the Qing Dynasty. The three tomb complexes, and their numerous edifices, combine traditions inherited from previous dynasties and new features of Manchu civilization.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1172</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2001</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1039</http_url><id_number>1039</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1039.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;Criterion (i): The assemblage of statuary of the Yungang Grottoes is a masterpiece of early Chinese Buddhist cave art.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;Criterion (ii): The Yungang cave art represent the successful fusion of Buddhist religious symbolic art from south and central Asia with Chinese cultural traditions, starting in the 5th century CE under Imperial auspices.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;Criterion (iii): The power and endurance of Buddhist belief in China are vividly illustrated by the Yungang grottoes.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;Criterion (iv): The Buddhist tradition of religious cave art achieved its first major impact at Yungang, where it developed its own distinct character and artistic power.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>40.1097200000</latitude><location>Datong City, Shanxi Province</location><longitude>113.1222200000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Yungang Grottoes, in Datong city, Shanxi Province, with their 252 caves and 51,000 statues, represent the outstanding achievement of Buddhist cave art in China in the 5th and 6th centuries. The Five Caves created by Tan Yao, with their strict unity of layout and design, constitute a classical masterpiece of the first peak of Chinese Buddhist art.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Yungang Grottoes</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1213</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2005</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1110</http_url><id_number>1110</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1110.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; The strategic location of Macao on the Chinese territory, and the special relationship established between the Chinese and Portuguese authorities favoured an important interchange of human values in the various fields of culture, sciences, technology, art and architecture over several centuries.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii): &lt;/em&gt; Macao bears a unique testimony to the first and longest-lasting encounter between the West and China. From the 16th to the 20th centuries, it was the focal point for traders and missionaries, and the different fields of learning. The impact of this encounter can be traced in the fusion of different cultures that characterise the historic core zone of Macao.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv): &lt;/em&gt; Macao represents an outstanding example of an architectural ensemble that illustrates the development of the encounter between the Western and Chinese civilisations over some four and half centuries, represented in the historical route, with a series of urban spaces and architectural ensembles, that links the ancient Chinese port with the Portuguese city.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (vi): &lt;/em&gt; Macao has been associated with the exchange of a variety of cultural, spiritual, scientific and technical influences between the Western and Chinese civilisations. These ideas directly motivated the introduction of crucial changes in China, ultimately ending the era of imperial feudal system and establishing the modern republic.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>22.1912919444</latitude><location>Macao Special Administrative Region</location><longitude>113.5364611111</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Macao, a lucrative port of strategic importance in the development of international trade, was under Portuguese administration from the mid-16th century until 1999, when it came under Chinese sovereignty. With its historic street, residential, religious and public Portuguese and Chinese buildings, the historic centre of Macao provides a unique testimony to the meeting of aesthetic, cultural, architectural and technological influences from East and West. The site also contains a fortress and a lighthouse, the oldest in China. It bears witness to one of the earliest and longest-lasting encounters between China and the West, based on the vibrancy of international trade.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic Centre of Macao</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1289</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2006</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1114</http_url><id_number>1114</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1114.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>36.1266666666</latitude><location>Henan Province</location><longitude>114.3138888888</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The archaeological site of Yin Xu, close to Anyang City, some 500 km south of Beijing, is an ancient capital city of the late Shang Dynasty (1300 - 1046 BC). It testifies to the golden age of early Chinese culture, crafts and sciences, a time of great prosperity of the Chinese Bronze Age. A number of royal tombs and palaces, prototypes of later Chinese architecture, have been unearthed on the site, including the Palace and Royal Ancestral Shrines Area, with more than 80 house foundations, and the only tomb of a member of the royal family of the Shang Dynasty to have remained intact, the Tomb of Fu Hao. The large number and superb craftsmanship of the burial accessories found there bear testimony to the advanced level of Shang crafts industry. Inscriptions on oracle bones found in Yin Xu bear invaluable testimony to the development of one of the world&amp;rsquo;s oldest writing systems, ancient beliefs and social systems.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Yin Xu</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1293</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2004</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1135</http_url><id_number>1135</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1135.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (i):&lt;/em&gt; The tombs represent a masterpiece of the human creative genius in their wall paintings and structures.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; The Capital Cities of the Koguryo Kingdom are an early example of mountain cities, later imitated by neighbouring cultures. The tombs, particularly the important stele and a long inscription in one of the tombs, show the impact of Chinese culture on the Koguryo (who did not develop their own writing). The paintings in the tombs, while showing artistic skills and specific style, are also an example for strong impact from other cultures.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii):&lt;/em&gt; The Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom represent exceptional testimony to the vanished Koguryo civilization.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; The system of capital cities represented by Guonei City and Wandu Mountain City also influenced the construction of later capitals built by the Koguryo regime; the Koguryo tombs provide outstanding examples of the evolution of piled-stone and earthen tomb construction.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (v):&lt;/em&gt; The capital cities of the Koguryo Kingdom represent a perfect blending of human creation and nature whether with the rocks or with forests and rivers.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>41.1569444400</latitude><location>Huanren County, Liaoning Province and Ji’an, Jilin Province</location><longitude>126.1872222000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The site includes archaeological remains of three cities and 40 tombs: Wunu Mountain City, Guonei City and Wandu Mountain City, 14 tombs are imperial, 26 of nobles. All belong to the Koguryo culture, named after the dynasty that ruled over parts of northern China and the northern half of the Korean Peninsula from 277 BC to AD 668. Wunu Mountain City is only partly excavated. Guonei City, within the modern city of Ji&amp;rsquo;an, played the role of a &amp;lsquo;supporting capital&amp;rsquo; after the main Koguryo capital moved to Pyongyang. Wandu Mountain City, one of the capitals of the Koguryo Kingdom, contains many vestiges including a large palace and 37 tombs. Some of the tombs show great ingenuity in their elaborate ceilings, designed to roof wide spaces without columns and carry the heavy load of a stone or earth tumulus (mound), which was placed above them.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1315</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2006</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1213</http_url><id_number>1213</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1213.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>30.8333333333</latitude><location>Sichuan Province</location><longitude>103.0000000000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries, home to more than 30% of the world's pandas which are classed as highly endangered, covers 924,500 ha with seven nature reserves and nine scenic parks in the Qionglai and Jiajin Mountains. The sanctuaries constitute the largest remaining contiguous habitat of the giant panda, a relict from the paleo-tropic forests of the Tertiary Era. It is also the species' most important site for captive breeding. The sanctuaries are home to other globally endangered animals such as the red panda, the snow leopard and clouded leopard. They are among the botanically richest sites of any region in the world outside the tropical rainforests, with between 5,000 and 6,000 species of flora in over 1,000 genera.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries - Wolong, Mt Siguniang and Jiajin Mountains </site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1390</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2007</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1112</http_url><id_number>1112</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1112.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>22.2855194444</latitude><location>Guangdong Province</location><longitude>112.5658611111</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Kaiping Diaolou and Villages feature the Diaolou, multi-storeyed defensive village houses in Kaiping, which display a complex and flamboyant fusion of Chinese and Western structural and decorative forms. They reflect the significant role of &amp;eacute;migr&amp;eacute; Kaiping people in the development of several countries in South Asia, Australasia and North America, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. There are four groups of Diaolou and twenty of the most symbolic ones are inscribed on the List. These buildings take three forms: communal towers built by several families and used as temporary refuge, residential towers built by individual rich families and used as fortified residences, and watch towers. Built of stone, &lt;em&gt;pise&lt;/em&gt; , brick or concrete, these buildings represent a complex and confident fusion between Chinese and Western architectural styles. Retaining a harmonious relationship with the surrounding landscape, the Diaolou testify to the final flowering of local building traditions that started in the Ming period in response to local banditry.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Kaiping Diaolou and Villages</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1459</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2008</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1113</http_url><id_number>1113</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1113.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>25.0230555556</latitude><location></location><longitude>117.6858333333</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Fujian &lt;em&gt;Tulou&lt;/em&gt; is a property of 46 buildings constructed between the 15th and 20th centuries over 120 km in south-west of Fujian province, inland from the Taiwan Strait. Set amongst rice, tea and tobacco fields the Tulou are earthen houses. Several storeys high, they are built along an inward-looking, circular or square floor plan as housing for up to 800 people each. They were built for defence purposes around a central open courtyard with only one entrance and windows to the outside only above the first floor. Housing a whole clan, the houses functioned as village units and were known as “a little kingdom for the family” or “bustling small city.” They feature tall fortified mud walls capped by tiled roofs with wide over-hanging eaves. The most elaborate structures date back to the 17th and 18th centuries. The buildings were divided vertically between families with each disposing of two or three rooms on each floor. In contrast with their plain exterior, the inside of the tulou were built for comfort and were often highly decorated. They are inscribed as exceptional examples of a building tradition and function exemplifying a particular type of communal living and defensive organization, and, in terms of their harmonious relationship with their environment, an outstanding example of human settlement.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Fujian &lt;em&gt;Tulou&lt;/em&gt;</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1505</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2008</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1292</http_url><id_number>1292</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1292.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>28.9158333333</latitude><location></location><longitude>118.0644444444</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Mount Sanqingshan National Park, a 22,950 ha property located in the west of the Huyaiyu mountain range in the northeast of Jiangxi Province (in the east of central China) has been inscribed for its exceptional scenic quality, marked by the concentration of fantastically shaped pillars and peaks: 48 granite peaks and 89 granite pillars, many of which resemble human or animal silhouettes. The natural beauty of the 1,817 metre high Mount Huaiyu is further enhanced by the juxtaposition of granite features with the vegetation and particular meteorological conditions which make for an ever-changing and arresting landscape with bright halos on clouds and white rainbows. The area is subject to a combination of subtropical monsoonal and maritime influences and forms an island of temperate forest above the surrounding subtropical landscape. It also features forests and numerous waterfalls, some of them 60 metres in height, lakes and springs.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Mount Sanqingshan National Park</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1523</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2009</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1279</http_url><id_number>1279</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1279.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>39.0305555556</latitude><location></location><longitude>113.5633333333</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;With its five flat peaks, Mount Wutai is a sacred Buddhist mountain. The cultural landscape is home to forty-one monasteries and includes the East Main Hall of Foguang Temple, the highest surviving timber building of the Tang dynasty, with life-size clay sculptures. It also features the Ming dynasty Shuxiang Temple with a huge complex of 500 statues representing Buddhist stories woven into three-dimensional pictures of mountains and water. Overall, the buildings on the site catalogue the way in which Buddhist architecture developed and influenced palace building in China for over a millennium. Mount Wutai, literally, 'the five terrace mountain', is the highest in Northern China and is remarkable for its morphology of precipitous slopes with five open treeless peaks. Temples have been built on this site from the 1st century AD to the early 20th century.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Mount Wutai</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1587</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(viii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2010</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1335</http_url><id_number>1335</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1335.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>28.4219444444</latitude><location></location><longitude>106.0425000000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;China Danxia is the name given in China to landscapes developed on continental red terrigenous sedimentary beds influenced by endogenous forces (including uplift) and exogenous forces (including weathering and erosion). The inscribed site comprises six areas found in the sub-tropical zone of south-west China. They are characterized by spectacular red cliffs and a range of erosional landforms, including dramatic natural pillars, towers, ravines, valleys and waterfalls. These rugged landscapes have helped to conserve sub-tropical broad-leaved evergreen forests, and host many species of flora and fauna, about 400 of which are considered rare or threatened.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>China Danxia</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1676</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2010</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1305</http_url><id_number>1305</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1305.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>34.4587472222</latitude><location></location><longitude>113.0677194444</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Mount Songshang is considered to be the central sacred mountain of China. At the foot of this 1500 metre high mountain, close to the city of Dengfeng in Henan province and spread over a 40 square-kilometre circle, stand eight clusters of buildings and sites, including three Han Que gates - remains of the oldest religious edifices in China -, temples, the Zhougong Sundial Platform and the Dengfeng Observatory. Constructed over the course of nine dynasties, these buildings are reflections of different ways of perceiving the centre of heaven and earth and the power of the mountain as a centre for religious devotion. The historical monuments of Dengfeng include some of the best examples of ancient Chinese buildings devoted to ritual, science, technology and education.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic Monuments of Dengfeng in “The Centre of Heaven and Earth”</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1726</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(viii)(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2003</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1083</http_url><id_number>1083</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1083.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;Criterion (vii): Superlative natural phenomena or natural beauty and aesthetic importance The deep, parallel gorges of the Jinsha, Lancang and Nu Jiang are the outstanding natural feature of the site; while large sections of the three rivers lie just outside the site boundaries, the river gorges are nevertheless the dominant scenic element in the area. High mountains are everywhere, with the glaciated peaks of the Meili, Baima and Haba Snow Mountains providing a spectacular scenic skyline. The Mingyongqia Glacier is a notable natural phemonenon, descending to 2700 m altitude from Mt Kawagebo (6740 m), and is claimed to be the gla cier descending to the lowest altitude for such a low latitude (28° N) in the northern hemisphere. Other outstanding scenic landforms are the alpine karst (especially the 'stone moon' in the Moon Mountain Scenic Area above the Nu Jiang Gorge) and the 'tortoise shell' weathering of the alpine Danxia.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;Criterion (viii): The property is of outstanding value for displaying the geological history of the last 50 million years associated with the collision of the Indian Plate with the Eurasian Plate, the closure of the ancient Tethys Sea, and the uplifting of the Himalaya Range and the Tibetan Plateau. These were major geological events in the evolution of the land surface of Asia and they are on-going. The diverse rock types within the site record this history and, in addition, the range of karst, granite monolith, and Danxia sandstone landforms in the alpine zone include some of the best of their type in the mountains of the world.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt; Criterion (ix): The dramatic expression of ecological processes in the Three Parallel Rivers site has resulted from a mix of geological, climatic and topographical effects. First, the location of the area within an active orographic belt has resulted in a wide range of rock substrates from igneous (four types) through to various sedimentary types including limestones, sandstones and conglomerates. An exceptional range of topographical features - from gorges to karst to glaciated peaks -- is associated with the site being at a “collision point” of tectonic plates. Add the fact that the area was a Pleistocene refugium and is located at a biogeographical convergence zone (i.e. with temperate and tropical elements) and the physical foundations for evolution of its high biodiversity are all present. Along with the landscape diversity with a steep gradient of almost 6000m vertical, a monsoon climate affects most of the area and provides another favourable ecological stimulus that has allowed the full range of temperate Palearctic biomes to develop.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;Criterion (x): Biodiversity and threatened species Northwest Yunnan is the area of richest biodiversity in China and may be the most biologically diverse temperate region on earth. The site encompasses most of the natural habitats in the Hengduan Mountains, one of the world's most important remaining areas for the conservation of the earth's biodiversity. The outstanding topographic and climatic diversity of the site, coupled with its location at the juncture of the East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Tibetan Plateau biogeographical realms and its function as a N-S corridor for the movement of plants and animals (especially during the ice ages), marks it as a truly unique landscape, which still retains a high degree of natural character despite thousands of years of human habitation. As the last remaining stronghold for an extensive suite of rare and endangered plants and animals, the site is of outstanding universal value.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>27.8950000000</latitude><location>Lijiang Prefecture, Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture and Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province</location><longitude>98.4063888900</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Consisting of eight geographical clusters of protected areas within the boundaries of the Three Parallel Rivers National Park, in the mountainous north-west of Yunnan Province, the 1.7 million hectare site features sections of the upper reaches of three of the great rivers of Asia: the Yangtze (Jinsha), Mekong and Salween run roughly parallel, north to south, through steep gorges which, in places, are 3,000 m deep and are bordered by glaciated peaks more than 6,000 m high. The site is an epicentre of Chinese biodiversity. It is also one of the richest temperate regions of the world in terms of biodiversity.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1731</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2011</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1334</http_url><id_number>1334</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1334.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>30.2375000000</latitude><location></location><longitude>120.1408333333</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The West Lake Cultural Landscape of Hangzhou, comprising the West Lake and the hills surrounding its three sides, has inspired famous poets, scholars and artists since the 9th century. It comprises numerous temples, pagodas, pavilions, gardens and ornamental trees, as well as causeways and artificial islands. These additions have been made to improve the landscape west of the city of Hangzhou to the south of the Yangtze river.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;The West Lake has influenced garden design in the rest of China as well as Japan and Korea over the centuries and bears an exceptional testimony to the cultural tradition of improving landscapes to create a series of vistas reflecting an idealised fusion between humans and nature.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>West Lake Cultural Landscape of Hangzhou</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1765</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(viii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2012</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1388</http_url><id_number>1388</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1388.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>24.6688888889</latitude><location></location><longitude>102.9772222222</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;A hilly 512&amp;nbsp;ha site in Yunnan province, Chengjiang&amp;rsquo;s fossils present the most complete record of an early Cambrian marine community with exceptionally preserved biota, displaying the anatomy of hard and soft tissues in a very wide variety of organisms, invertebrate and vertebrate. They record the early establishment of a complex marine ecosystem. The site documents at least sixteen phyla and a variety of enigmatic groups as well as about 196 species, presenting exceptional testimony to the rapid diversification of life on Earth 530&amp;nbsp;million years ago, when almost all of today&amp;rsquo;s major animal groups emerged. It opens a palaeobiological window of great significance to scholarship.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Chengjiang Fossil Site</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1803</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2012</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1389</http_url><id_number>1389</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1389.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>42.3580000000</latitude><location></location><longitude>116.1851277778</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;North of the Great Wall, the Site of Xanadu encompasses the remains of Kublai Khan&amp;rsquo;s legendary capital city, designed by the Mongol ruler&amp;rsquo;s Chinese advisor Liu Bingzhdong in 1256. Over a surface area of 25,000&amp;nbsp;ha, the site was a unique attempt to assimilate the nomadic Mongolian and Han Chinese cultures. From this base, Kublai Khan established the Yuan dynasty that ruled China over a century, extending its boundaries across Asia. The religious debate that took place here resulted in the dissemination of Tibetan Buddhism over north-east Asia, a cultural and religious tradition still practised in many areas today. The site was planned according to traditional Chinese &lt;em&gt;feng shui&lt;/em&gt; in relation to the nearby mountains and river. It features the remains of the city, including temples, palaces, tombs, nomadic encampments and the Tiefan&amp;rsquo;gang Canal, along with other waterworks.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Site of Xanadu</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1804</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(ix)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2013</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1414</http_url><id_number>1414</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1414.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>41.9683333333</latitude><location></location><longitude>80.3541666667</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Xinjiang Tianshan&amp;nbsp;comprises four components&amp;mdash;Tomur, Kalajun-Kuerdening, Bayinbukuke and Bogda&amp;mdash; that total 606,833 hectares. They are part of the Tianshan mountain system of Central Asia, one of the largest mountain ranges in the world. Xinjiang Tianshan presents unique physical geographic features and scenically beautiful areas including spectacular snow and snowy mountains glacier-capped peaks, undisturbed forests and meadows, clear rivers and lakes and red bed canyons. These landscapes contrast with the vast adjacent desert landscapes, creating a striking visual contrast between hot and cold environments, dry and wet, desolate and luxuriant. The landforms and ecosystems of the site have been preserved since the Pliocene epoch and present an outstanding example of ongoing biological and ecological evolutionary processes. The site also extends into the Taklimakan Desert, one of the world&amp;rsquo;s largest and highest deserts, known for its large dune forms and great dust storms. Xinjiang Tianshan is moreover an important habitat for endemic and relic flora species, some rare and endangered.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Xinjiang Tianshan</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1876</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2013</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1111</http_url><id_number>1111</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1111.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>23.0932777778</latitude><location></location><longitude>102.7799805556</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Cultural Landscape of Honghe Hani Rice Terraces, China covers 16,603-hectares in Southern Yunnan. It is marked by spectacular terraces that cascade down the slopes of the towering Ailao Mountains to the banks of the Hong River. Over the past 1,300 years, the Hani people have developed a complex system of channels to bring water from the forested mountaintops to the terraces. They have also created an integrated farming system that involves buffalos, cattle, ducks, fish and eel and supports the production of red rice, the area&amp;rsquo;s primary crop. The inhabitants worship the sun, moon, mountains, rivers, forests and other natural phenomena including fire. They live in 82 villages situated between the mountaintop forests and the terraces. The villages feature traditional thatched &amp;ldquo;mushroom&amp;rdquo; houses. The resilient land management system of the rice terraces demonstrates extraordinary harmony between people and their environment, both visually and ecologically, based on exceptional and long-standing social and religious structures.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Cultural Landscape of Honghe Hani Rice Terraces </site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1877</unique_number></row><row><category>Mixed</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(vii)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1990</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/547</http_url><id_number>547</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_547.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>30.1666700000</latitude><location></location><longitude>118.1833300000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Huangshan, known as 'the loveliest mountain of China', was acclaimed through art and literature during a good part of Chinese history (e.g. the Shanshui 'mountain and water' style of the mid-16th century). Today it holds the same fascination for visitors, poets, painters and photographers who come on pilgrimage to the site, which is renowned for its magnificent scenery made up of many granite peaks and rocks emerging out of a sea of clouds.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Mount Huangshan</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1933</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1997</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/811</http_url><id_number>811</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_811.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee decided to inscribe this site on the basis of cultural criteria (ii), (iv) and (v). Lijiang is an exceptional ancient town set in a dramatic landscape which represents the harmonious fusion of different cultural traditions to produce an urban landscape of outstanding quality.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>26.8666700000</latitude><location>Lijiang's old town (including the Dayan old town, Basha housing cluster and Shuhe housing cluster)</location><longitude>100.2333300000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Old Town of Lijiang, which is perfectly adapted to the uneven topography of this key commercial and strategic site, has retained a historic townscape of high quality and authenticity. Its architecture is noteworthy for the blending of elements from several cultures that have come together over many centuries. Lijiang also possesses an ancient water-supply system of great complexity and ingenuity that still functions effectively today.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Old Town of Lijiang</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1934</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(viii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2007</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1248</http_url><id_number>1248</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1248.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>24.9233333333</latitude><location></location><longitude>110.3544444444</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2014</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;South China Karst is one of the world’s most spectacular examples of humid tropical to subtropical karst landscapes. It is a serial site spread over the provinces of Guizhou, Guangxi, Yunnan and Chongqing and covers 176,228 hectares. It contains the most significant types of karst landforms, including tower karst, pinnacle karst and cone karst formations, along with other spectacular characteristics such as natural bridges, gorges and large cave systems. The stone forests of Shilin are considered superlative natural phenomena and a world reference. The cone and tower karsts of Libo, also considered the world reference site for these types of karst, form a distinctive and beautiful landscape. Wulong Karst has been inscribed for its giant dolines (sinkholes), natural bridges and caves.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>South China Karst</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1965</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2015</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1474</http_url><id_number>1474</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1474.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>28.9986111111</latitude><location></location><longitude>109.9669444444</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Located in the mountainous areas of south-west China, this property encompasses remains of several tribal domains whose chiefs were appointed by the central government as ‘Tusi’, hereditary rulers from the 13&lt;sup&gt;th&lt;/sup&gt; to the early 20&lt;sup&gt;th&lt;/sup&gt;century. The Tusi system arose from the ethnic minorities’ dynastic systems of government dating back to the 3&lt;sup&gt;rd&lt;/sup&gt; century BCE. Its purpose was to unify national administration, while allowing ethnic minorities to retain their customs and way of life. The sites of Laosicheng, Tangya and Hailongtun Fortress that make up the site bear exceptional testimony to this form of governance, which derived from the Chinese civilization of the Yuan and Ming periods.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Tusi Sites</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2035</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2016</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1508</http_url><id_number>1508</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1508.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>22.2555555556</latitude><location></location><longitude>107.0230555556</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Located on the steep cliffs in the border regions of southwest China, these 38 sites of rock art illustrate the life and rituals of the Luoyue people. They date from the period around the 5th century BCE to the 2nd century CE. In a surrounding landscape of karst, rivers and plateaux, they depict ceremonies that have been interpreted as portraying the bronze drum culture once prevalent across southern China. This cultural landscape is the only remains of this culture today.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Zuojiang Huashan Rock Art Cultural Landscape</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2100</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2016</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1509</http_url><id_number>1509</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1509.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>31.4697222222</latitude><location></location><longitude>110.2438888889</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Located in Hubei Province, in central-eastern China, the site consists of two components: Shennongding/Badong to the west and Laojunshan to the east. It protects the largest primary forests remaining in Central China and provides habitat for many rare animal species, such as the Chinese Giant Salamander, the Golden or Sichuan Snub-nosed Monkey, the Clouded Leopard, Common Leopard and the Asian Black Bear. Hubei Shennongjia is one of three centres of biodiversity in China. The site features prominently in the history of botanical research and was the object of international plant collecting expeditions in the 19th and 20th centuries. &lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Hubei Shennongjia</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2101</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2017</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1540</http_url><id_number>1540</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1540.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>35.3802777778</latitude><location></location><longitude>92.4391666667</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p style="text-align: left;"&gt;Qinghai Hoh Xil, located in the northeastern extremity of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, is the largest and highest plateau in the world. This extensive area of alpine mountains and steppe systems is situated more than 4,500 m above sea level, where sub-zero average temperatures prevail all year-round. The site’s geographical and climatic conditions have nurtured a unique biodiversity. More than one third of the plant species, and all the herbivorous mammals are endemic to the plateau. The property secures the complete migratory route of the Tibetan antelope, one of the endangered large mammals that are endemic to the plateau.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Qinghai Hoh Xil</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2141</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2017</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1541</http_url><id_number>1541</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1541.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>24.4475000000</latitude><location></location><longitude>118.0619444444</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Kulangsu is a tiny island located on the estuary of the Chiu-lung River, facing the city of Xiamen. With the opening of a commercial port at Xiamen in 1843, and the establishment of the island as an international settlement in 1903, this island off the southern coast of the Chinese empire suddenly became an important window for Sino-foreign exchanges. Kulangsu is an exceptional example of the cultural fusion that emerged from these exchanges, which remain legible in its urban fabric. There is a mixture of different architectural styles including Traditional Southern Fujian Style, Western Classical Revival Style and Veranda Colonial Style. The most exceptional testimony of the fusion of various stylistic influences is a new architectural movement, the Amoy Deco Style, which is a synthesis of the Modernist style of the early 20th century and Art Deco.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Kulangsu, a Historic International Settlement</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2142</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2014</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1443</http_url><id_number>1443</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1443.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>34.6938888889</latitude><location></location><longitude>112.4683333333</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Grand Canal is a vast waterway system in the north-eastern and central-eastern plains of China, running from Beijing in the north to Zhejiang province in the south. Constructed in sections from the 5th century BC onwards, it was conceived as a unified means of communication for the Empire for the first time in the 7th century AD (Sui dynasty). This led to a series of gigantic construction sites, creating the world’s largest and most extensive civil engineering project prior to the Industrial Revolution. It formed the backbone of the Empire’s inland communication system, transporting grain and strategic raw materials, and supplying rice to feed the population. By the 13th century it consisted of more than 2,000 km of artificial waterways, linking five of China’s main river basins. It has played an important role in ensuring the country’s economic prosperity and stability and is still in use today as a major means of communication.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>The Grand Canal</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2181</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2018</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1559</http_url><id_number>1559</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1559.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>27.8955555556</latitude><location> </location><longitude>108.6800000000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Located within the Wuling mountain range in Guizhou Province (south-west China), Fanjingshan ranges in altitude between 500 metres and 2,570 metres above sea level, favouring highly diverse types of vegetation and relief. It is an island of metamorphic rock in a sea of karst, home to many plant and animal species that originated in the Tertiary period, between 65 million and 2 million years ago. The property’s isolation has led to a high degree of biodiversity with endemic species, such as the Fanjingshan Fir (&lt;em&gt;Abies fanjingshanensis&lt;/em&gt;) and the Guizhou Snub-nosed Monkey (&lt;em&gt;Rhinopithecus brelichi&lt;/em&gt;), and endangered species, such as the Chinese Giant Salamander (&lt;em&gt;Andrias davidianus&lt;/em&gt;), the Forest Musk Deer (&lt;em&gt;Moschus berezovskii&lt;/em&gt;) and Reeve’s Pheasant (&lt;em&gt;Syrmaticus reevesii&lt;/em&gt;). Fanjingshan has the largest and most contiguous primeval beech forest in the subtropical region.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Fanjingshan</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2224</unique_number></row><row><category>Mixed</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(vi)(vii)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1999</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/911</http_url><id_number>911</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_911.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;Natural criteria (vii) and (x): Mount Wuyi is one of the most outstanding subtropical forests in the world. It is the largest, most representative example of a largely intact forest encompassing the diversity of the Chinese Subtropical Forest and the South Chinese Rainforest. It acts as a refuge for a large number of ancient, relict plant species, many of them endemic to China and contains large numbers of reptile, amphibian and insect species. The riverine landscape of Nine-Bend Stream (lower gorge) is also of exceptional scenic quality in its juxtaposition of smooth rock cliffs with clear, deep water.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;Cultural criteria (iii): Mount Wuyi is a landscape of great beauty that has been protected for more than twelve centuries. It contains a series of exceptional archaeological sites, including the Han City established in the 1st century BC and a number of temples and study centres associated with the birth of Neo-Confucianism in the 11th century AD.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;Cultural Criterion (vi): Mount Wuyi was the cradle of Neo-Confucianism, a doctrine that played a dominant role in the countries of Eastern and South-Eastern Asia for many centuries and influenced philosophy and government over much of the world.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>27.7166700000</latitude><location>Wuyishan City, Fujian Province</location><longitude>117.6833300000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Mount Wuyi is the most outstanding area for biodiversity conservation in south-east China and a refuge for a large number of ancient, relict species, many of them endemic to China. The serene beauty of the dramatic gorges of the Nine Bend River, with its numerous temples and monasteries, many now in ruins, provided the setting for the development and spread of neo-Confucianism, which has been influential in the cultures of East Asia since the 11th century. In the 1st century B.C. a large administrative capital was built at nearby Chengcun by the Han dynasty rulers. Its massive walls enclose an archaeological site of great significance.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Mount Wuyi</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2245</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2019</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1592</http_url><id_number>1592</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1592.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>30.3955555556</latitude><location></location><longitude>119.9908333333</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Located in the Yangtze River Basin on the south-eastern coast of the country, the archaeological ruins of Liangzhu (about 3,300-2,300 BCE) reveal an early regional state with a unified belief system based on rice cultivation in Late Neolithic China. The property is composed of four areas – the Area of Yaoshan Site, the Area of High-dam at the Mouth of the Valley, the Area of Low-dam on the Plain and the Area of City Site. These ruins are an outstanding example of early urban civilization expressed in earthen monuments, urban planning, a water conservation system and a social hierarchy expressed in differentiated burials in cemeteries within the property.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Archaeological Ruins of Liangzhu City</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2277</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2019</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1606</http_url><id_number>1606</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1606.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>32.9319444444</latitude><location></location><longitude>121.0168138889</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The property features an intertidal mudflat system considered to be the largest in the world. These mudflats, as well as marshes and shoals, are exceptionally productive and serve as growth areas for many species of fish and crustaceans. The intertidal areas of the Yellow Sea/Gulf of Bohai are of global importance for the gathering of many migratory bird species that use the East Asian-Australasian flyway. Large gatherings of birds, including some of the world's most endangered species, depend on the coastline as a stopover to moult, rest, winter or nest.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Migratory Bird Sanctuaries along the Coast of Yellow Sea-Bohai Gulf of China (Phase I)</site><states>China</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2304</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1984</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/285</http_url><id_number>285</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_285.jpg</image_url><iso_code>co</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>10.4166666700</latitude><location>Bolivar Department</location><longitude>-75.5333333300</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Situated in a bay in the Caribbean Sea, Cartagena has the most extensive fortifications in South America. A system of zones divides the city into three neighbourhoods: San Pedro, with the cathedral and many Andalusian-style palaces; San Diego, where merchants and the middle class lived; and Gethsemani, the 'popular quarter'.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Port, Fortresses and Group of Monuments, Cartagena</site><states>Colombia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>319</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger>1</danger><date_inscribed>1994</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/711</http_url><id_number>711</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_711.jpg</image_url><iso_code>co</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>7.6666666670</latitude><location>Provinces of Antioquia and Choco’</location><longitude>-77.0000000000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Extending over 72,000 ha in north-western Colombia, Los Katios National Park comprises low hills, forests and humid plains. An exceptional biological diversity is found in the park, which is home to many threatened animal species, as well as many endemic plants.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Los Katíos National Park</site><states>Colombia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>841</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1995</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/742</http_url><id_number>742</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_742.jpg</image_url><iso_code>co</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>9.2333333330</latitude><location>Bolívar Department</location><longitude>-74.4333333300</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Founded in 1540 on the banks of the River Magdalena, Mompox played a key role in the Spanish colonization of northern South America. From the 16th to the 19th century the city developed parallel to the river, with the main street acting as a dyke. The historic centre has preserved the harmony and unity of the urban landscape. Most of the buildings are still used for their original purposes, providing an exceptional picture of what a Spanish colonial city was like.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic Centre of Santa Cruz de Mompox</site><states>Colombia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>876</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1995</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/743</http_url><id_number>743</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_743.jpg</image_url><iso_code>co</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>2.5833333330</latitude><location>Department of Cauca, in the jurisdiction of the municipality of Inza, in the “corregimiento” of San Andres de Pisimbalá</location><longitude>-76.0333333300</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Several monumental statues of human figures can be seen in the park, which also contains many hypogea dating from the 6th to the 10th century. These huge underground tombs (some burial chambers are up to 12 m wide) are decorated with motifs that reproduce the internal decor of homes of the period. They reveal the social complexity and cultural wealth of a pre-Hispanic society in the northern Andes.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>National Archeological Park of Tierradentro</site><states>Colombia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>877</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1995</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/744</http_url><id_number>744</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_744.jpg</image_url><iso_code>co</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>1.9166666670</latitude><location>Department of Huila: Municipalities of San Augustin and San José de Isnos</location><longitude>-76.2333333300</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The largest group of religious monuments and megalithic sculptures in South America stands in a wild, spectacular landscape. Gods and mythical animals are skilfully represented in styles ranging from abstract to realist. These works of art display the creativity and imagination of a northern Andean culture that flourished from the 1st to the 8th century.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>San Agustín Archaeological Park</site><states>Colombia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>878</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(ix)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2006</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1216</http_url><id_number>1216</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1216.jpg</image_url><iso_code>co</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>3.9666666667</latitude><location>Valle del Cauca Region</location><longitude>-81.6166666666</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Located some 506 km off the coast of Colombia, the site includes Malpelo island (350 ha) and the surrounding marine environment (857,150 ha). This vast marine park, the largest no-fishing zone in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, provides a critical habitat for internationally threatened marine species, and is a major source of nutrients resulting in large aggregations of marine biodiversity. It is in particular a ‘reservoir' for sharks, giant grouper and billfish and is one of the few places in the world where sightings of the short-nosed ragged-toothed shark, a deepwater shark, have been confirmed. Widely recognized as one of the top diving sites in the world, due to the presence of steep walls and caves of outstanding natural beauty, these deep waters support important populations of large predators and pelagic species (e.g. aggregations of over 200 hammerhead sharks and over 1,000 silky sharks, whale sharks and tuna have been recorded) in an undisturbed environment where they maintain natural behavioural patterns.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Malpelo Fauna and Flora Sanctuary</site><states>Colombia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1393</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(v)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2011</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1121</http_url><id_number>1121</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1121.jpg</image_url><iso_code>co</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>5.4716666667</latitude><location></location><longitude>-75.6816666667</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;An exceptional example of a sustainable and productive cultural landscape that is unique and representative of a tradition that is a strong symbol for coffee growing areas worldwide - encompasses six farming landscapes, which include 18 urban centres on the foothills of the western and central ranges of the Cordillera de los Andes in the west of the country. It reflects a centennial tradition of coffee growing in small plots in the high forest and the way farmers have adapted cultivation to difficult mountain conditions. The urban areas, mainly situated on the relatively flat tops of hills above sloping coffee fields, are characterized by the architecture of the Antioquian colonization with Spanish influence. Building materials were, and remain in some areas, cob and pleated cane for the walls with clay tiles for the roofs.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Coffee Cultural Landscape of Colombia</site><states>Colombia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1787</unique_number></row><row><category>Mixed</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2018</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1174</http_url><id_number>1174</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1174.jpg</image_url><iso_code>co</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>0.5252777778</latitude><location></location><longitude>-72.7972222222</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Chiribiquete National Park, the largest protected area in Colombia, is the confluence point of four biogeographical provinces: Orinoquia, Guyana, Amazonia, and North Andes. As such, the National Park guarantees the connectivity and preservation of the biodiversity of these provinces, constituting itself as an interaction scenario in which flora and fauna diversity and endemism have flourished. One of the defining features of Chiribiquete is the presence of tepuis (table-top mountains), sheer-sided sandstone plateaux that outstand in the forest and result in dramatic scenery that is reinforced by its remoteness, inaccessibility and exceptional conservation. Over 75,000 figures have been made by indigenous people on the walls of the 60 rock shelters from 20,000 BCE, and are still made nowadays by the uncontacted peoples protected by the National Park. These paintings depict hunting scenes, battles, dances and ceremonies, as well as fauna and flora species, with a particular the worship of the jaguar, a symbol of power and fertility. The indigenous communities, which are not directly present on the site, consider Chiribiquete as a sacred place that cannot be visited and that should be preserved unaltered.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Chiribiquete National Park – “The Maloca of the Jaguar”</site><states>Colombia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2213</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1997</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/820</http_url><id_number>820</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_820.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cr</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee inscribed Cocos Island National Park under natural criteria (ix) and (x) because of the critical habitats the site provides for marine wildlife including large pelagic species, especially sharks.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>5.5333333330</latitude><location>Province of Puntarenas, South Eastern Tropical Pacific</location><longitude>-87.0666666700</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2002</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Cocos Island National Park, located 550 km off the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, is the only island in the tropical eastern Pacific with a tropical rainforest. Its position as the first point of contact with the northern equatorial counter-current, and the myriad interactions between the island and the surrounding marine ecosystem, make the area an ideal laboratory for the study of biological processes. The underwater world of the national park has become famous due to the attraction it holds for divers, who rate it as one of the best places in the world to view large pelagic species such as sharks, rays, tuna and dolphins.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Cocos Island National Park</site><states>Costa Rica</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>969</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1999</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/928</http_url><id_number>928</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_928.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>10.8500000000</latitude><location>Guanacaste and Alajuela provinces</location><longitude>-85.6166666700</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2004</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Area de Conservación Guanacaste (inscribed in 1999), was extended with the addition of a 15,000 ha private property, St Elena. It contains important natural habitats for the conservation of biological diversity, including the best dry forest habitats from Central America to northern Mexico and key habitats for endangered or rare plant and animal species. The site demonstrates significant ecological processes in both its terrestrial and marine-coastal environments.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Area de Conservación Guanacaste</site><states>Costa Rica</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1083</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2014</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1453</http_url><id_number>1453</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1453.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>8.9113888889</latitude><location></location><longitude>-83.4775000000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The property includes four archaeological sites located in the Diqu&amp;iacute;s Delta in southern Costa Rica, which are considered unique examples of the complex social, economic and political systems of the period AD&amp;nbsp;500&amp;ndash;1500. They contain artificial mounds, paved areas, burial sites and, most significantly, a collection of stone spheres, between 0.7&amp;nbsp;m and 2.57&amp;nbsp;m in diameter, whose meaning, use and production remain largely a mystery. The spheres are distinctive for their perfection, number, size and density, and placement in original locations. Their preservation from the looting that befell the vast majority of archaeological sites in Costa Rica has been attributed to the thick layers of sediment that kept them buried for centuries.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Precolumbian Chiefdom Settlements with Stone Spheres of the Diquís</site><states>Costa Rica</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1997</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1982</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/195</http_url><id_number>195</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_195.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ci</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>5.7500000000</latitude><location>Southwest region, Guiglo and Sassandra Districts</location><longitude>-7.6666700000</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This park is one of the last major remnants of the primary tropical forest of West Africa. Its rich natural flora, and threatened mammal species such as the pygmy hippopotamus and 11 species of monkeys, are of great scientific interest.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Taï National Park</site><states>Côte d'Ivoire</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>216</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger>Y 2003</danger><date_inscribed>1983</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/227</http_url><id_number>227</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_227.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ci</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>9.0000000000</latitude><location>Northeast region, Bouna and Ferkessedougou prefectures, Bouna, Kong, Nassian and Tehin sub-prefectures</location><longitude>-4.0000000000</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;One of the largest protected areas in West Africa, this park is characterized by its great plant diversity. Due to the presence of the Comoé river, it contains plants which are normally only found much farther south, such as shrub savannahs and patches of thick rainforest.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Comoé National Park</site><states>Côte d'Ivoire</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>252</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2012</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1322</http_url><id_number>1322</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1322.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ci</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>5.1958333333</latitude><location></location><longitude>-3.7363888889</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The first capital of Côte d’Ivoire, the Historic Town of Grand-Bassam, is an example of a late 19&lt;sup&gt;th&lt;/sup&gt;- and early 20&lt;sup&gt;th&lt;/sup&gt;-century colonial town planned with quarters specializing in commerce, administration, housing for Europeans and for Africans. The site includes the N’zima African fishing village alongside colonial architecture marked by functional houses with galleries, verandas and gardens. Grand-Bassam was the most important port, economic and judicial centre of Côte d’Ivoire. It bears witness to the complex social relations between Europeans and Africans, and to the subsequent independence movement. As a vibrant centre of the territory of French trading posts in the Gulf of Guinea, which preceded modern Côte d’Ivoire, it attracted populations from all parts of Africa, Europe and the Mediterranean Levant.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic Town of Grand-Bassam</site><states>Côte d'Ivoire</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1919</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1979</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/97</http_url><id_number>97</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_97.jpg</image_url><iso_code>hr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>43.5094400000</latitude><location>County of Split-Dalmatia </location><longitude>16.4433300000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The ruins of Diocletian's Palace, built between the late 3rd and the early 4th centuries A.D., can be found throughout the city. The cathedral was built in the Middle Ages, reusing materials from the ancient mausoleum. Twelfth- and 13th-century Romanesque churches, medieval fortifications, 15th-century Gothic palaces and other palaces in Renaissance and Baroque style make up the rest of the protected area.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historical Complex of Split with the Palace of Diocletian</site><states>Croatia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>105</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(viii)(ix)</criteria_txt><danger>P 1992-1997</danger><date_inscribed>1979</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/98</http_url><id_number>98</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_98.jpg</image_url><iso_code>hr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>44.8777800000</latitude><location></location><longitude>15.6144400000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2000</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The waters flowing over the limestone and chalk have, over thousands of years, deposited travertine barriers, creating natural dams which in turn have created a series of beautiful lakes, caves and waterfalls. These geological processes continue today. The forests in the park are home to bears, wolves and many rare bird species.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Plitvice Lakes National Park</site><states>Croatia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>106</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1997</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/809</http_url><id_number>809</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_809.jpg</image_url><iso_code>hr</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee decided to inscribe this property on the basis of criteria (ii), (iii) and (iv), considering that the Episcopal complex of the Euphrasian Basilica in the historic centre of Porec is an outstanding example of an early Christian episcopal ensemble that is exceptional by virtue of its completeness and its unique Basilican cathedral.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>45.2291700000</latitude><location>County of Istria</location><longitude>13.5944400000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The group of religious monuments in Porec, where Christianity was established as early as the 4th century, constitutes the most complete surviving complex of its type. The basilica, atrium, baptistery and episcopal palace are outstanding examples of religious architecture, while the basilica itself combines classical and Byzantine elements in an exceptional manner.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Episcopal Complex of the Euphrasian Basilica in the Historic Centre of Poreč</site><states>Croatia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>956</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1997</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/810</http_url><id_number>810</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_810.jpg</image_url><iso_code>hr</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee decided to inscribe this property on the basis of criteria (ii) and (iv), considering that Trogir is an excellent example of a medieval town built on and conforming with the layout of a Hellenistic and Roman city that has conserved its urban fabric to an exceptional degree and with the minimum of modern interventions, in which the trajectory of social and cultural development is clearly visible in every aspect of the townscape.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>43.5125000000</latitude><location>County of Split-Dalmatia</location><longitude>16.2516700000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Trogir is a remarkable example of urban continuity. The orthogonal street plan of this island settlement dates back to the Hellenistic period and it was embellished by successive rulers with many fine public and domestic buildings and fortifications. Its beautiful Romanesque churches are complemented by the outstanding Renaissance and Baroque buildings from the Venetian period.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic City of Trogir</site><states>Croatia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>957</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2000</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/963</http_url><id_number>963</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_963.jpg</image_url><iso_code>hr</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Criterion (i):&lt;/strong&gt; The structural characteristics of the Cathedral of St James in &amp;Scaron;ibenik make it a unique and outstanding building in which Gothic and Renaissance forms have been successfully blended. Criterion ii The Cathedral of St James is the fruitful outcome of considerable interchanges of influences between the three culturally different regions of Northern Italy, Dalmatia, and Tuscany in the 15th and 16th centuries. These interchanges created the conditions for unique and outstanding solutions to the technical and structural problems of constructing the cathedral vaulting and dome. Criterion iv The Cathedral of St James in &amp;Scaron;ibenik is a unique testimony to the transition from the Gothic to the Renaissance period in church architecture.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>43.7362900000</latitude><location>County of Šibenik-Knin</location><longitude>15.8903800000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Cathedral of St James in &amp;Scaron;ibenik (1431-1535), on the Dalmatian coast, bears witness to the considerable exchanges in the field of monumental arts between Northern Italy, Dalmatia and Tuscany in the 15th and 16th centuries. The three architects who succeeded one another in the construction of the Cathedral - Francesco di Giacomo, Georgius Mathei Dalmaticus and Niccol&amp;ograve; di Giovanni Fiorentino - developed a structure built entirely from stone and using unique construction techniques for the vaulting and the dome of the Cathedral. The form and the decorative elements of the Cathedral, such as a remarkable frieze decorated with 71 sculptured faces of men, women, and children, also illustrate the successful fusion of Gothic and Renaissance art.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>The Cathedral of St James in Šibenik</site><states>Croatia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1127</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2008</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1240</http_url><id_number>1240</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1240.jpg</image_url><iso_code>hr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>43.1816666667</latitude><location>Split and Dalmatia Counties</location><longitude>16.6386111111</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Stari Grad Plain on the Adriatic island of Hvar is a cultural landscape that has remained practically intact since it was first colonized by Ionian Greeks from Paros in the 4th century BC. The original agricultural activity of this fertile plain, mainly centring on grapes and olives, has been maintained since Greek times to the present. The site is also a natural reserve. The landscape features ancient stone walls and trims, or small stone shelters, and bears testimony to the ancient geometrical system of land division used by the ancient Greeks, the chora which has remained virtually intact over 24 centuries.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Stari Grad Plain</site><states>Croatia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1484</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger>P 1991-1998</danger><date_inscribed>1979</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/95</http_url><id_number>95</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_95.jpg</image_url><iso_code>hr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>42.6505600000</latitude><location>County of Dubrovnik-Neretva, Adriatic Coast</location><longitude>18.0913900000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>1994</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The 'Pearl of the Adriatic', situated on the Dalmatian coast, became an important Mediterranean sea power from the 13th century onwards. Although severely damaged by an earthquake in 1667, Dubrovnik managed to preserve its beautiful Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque churches, monasteries, palaces and fountains. Damaged again in the 1990s by armed conflict, it is now the focus of a major restoration programme co-ordinated by UNESCO.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Old City of Dubrovnik</site><states>Croatia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2315</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1982</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/204</http_url><id_number>204</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_204.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cu</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>23.1333333300</latitude><location>Province of Ciudad de la Habana</location><longitude>-82.3500000000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Havana was founded in 1519 by the Spanish. By the 17th century, it had become one of the Caribbean's main centres for ship-building. Although it is today a sprawling metropolis of 2 million inhabitants, its old centre retains an interesting mix of Baroque and neoclassical monuments, and a homogeneous ensemble of private houses with arcades, balconies, wrought-iron gates and internal courtyards.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Old Havana and its Fortification System</site><states>Cuba</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>225</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1988</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/460</http_url><id_number>460</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_460.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cu</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>21.8030555600</latitude><location>Province of Sancti Spiritus</location><longitude>-79.9844444400</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Founded in the early 16th century in honour of the Holy Trinity, the city was a bridgehead for the conquest of the American continent. Its 18th- and 19th-century buildings, such as the Palacio Brunet and the Palacio Cantero, were built in its days of prosperity from the sugar trade.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Trinidad and the Valley de los Ingenios</site><states>Cuba</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>535</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2001</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/839</http_url><id_number>839</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_839.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cu</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ix):&lt;/em&gt; The size, altitudinal diversity, complex lithologies, and landform diversity of AHNP have resulted in a range of ecosystems and species unmatched in the Insular Caribbean. It was a Miocene-Pleistocene refuge site, particularly in the glacial eras, for the Caribbean biota. The fresh water rivers that flow off the peaks of the park are some of the largest in the insular Caribbean and because of this have high freshwater biological diversity. Because of the serpentine, peridotite, karst and pseudokarst geology of the region, AHNP is an excellent example of ongoing processes in the evolution of species and communities on underlying rocks that pose special challenges to plant survival.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (x):&lt;/em&gt; AHNP contains the most important and significant natural habitats for in-situ conservation of terrestrial biological diversity in the entire insular Caribbean. It contains 16 of 28 plant formations defined for Cuba, the largest island in the Caribbean, which is a unique biogeographic province. It is one of the most important sites for conservation of endemic flora in the entire Western Hemisphere &amp;ndash; nearly 70% of the 1,302 spermatophytes already described, of an estimated total of 1,800-2,000, are endemic to the park. AHNP is one of the most biologically diverse terrestrial tropical ecosystems in an island setting anywhere on earth. Endemism rates for vertebrates and invertebrates found in the park are also very high. Many of these are threatened because of their small range. Because of their uniqueness and the fact that they represent unique evolutionary processes, they are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science and conservation.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>20.4500000000</latitude><location>Guantánamo and Holguín Provinces</location><longitude>-75.0000000000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Complex geology and varied topography have given rise to a diversity of ecosystems and species unmatched in the insular Caribbean and created one of the most biologically diverse tropical island sites on earth. Many of the underlying rocks are toxic to plants so species have had to adapt to survive in these hostile conditions. This unique process of evolution has resulted in the development of many new species and the park is one of the most important sites in the Western Hemisphere for the conservation of endemic flora. Endemism of vertebrates and invertebrates is also very high.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Alejandro de Humboldt National Park</site><states>Cuba</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>989</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1999</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/840</http_url><id_number>840</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_840.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cu</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;Criterion (iv):The Vi&amp;ntilde;ales valley is an outstanding karst landscape in which traditional methods of agriculture (notably tobacco growing) have survived unchanged for several centuries. The region also preserves a rich vernacular tradition in its architecture, its crafts, and its music.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>22.6166700000</latitude><location>Province of Pinar del Rio</location><longitude>-83.7166700000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Vi&amp;ntilde;ales valley is encircled by mountains and its landscape is interspersed with dramatic rocky outcrops. Traditional techniques are still in use for agricultural production, particularly of tobacco. The quality of this cultural landscape is enhanced by the vernacular architecture of its farms and villages, where a rich multi-ethnic society survives, illustrating the cultural development of the islands of the Caribbean, and of Cuba.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Viñales Valley</site><states>Cuba</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>991</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1997</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/841</http_url><id_number>841</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_841.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cu</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee decided to inscribe this property on the basis of criteria (iv) and (v), considering that the Castle of San Pedro de la Roca and its associated defensive works are of exceptional value because they constitute the largest and most comprehensive example of the principles of Renaissance military engineering adapted to the requirements of European colonial powers in the Caribbean.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>19.9666666700</latitude><location>Provincia de Santiago de Cuba</location><longitude>-75.8708333300</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Commercial and political rivalries in the Caribbean region in the 17th century resulted in the construction of this massive series of fortifications on a rocky promontory, built to protect the important port of Santiago. This intricate complex of forts, magazines, bastions and batteries is the most complete, best-preserved example of Spanish-American military architecture, based on Italian and Renaissance design principles.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>San Pedro de la Roca Castle, Santiago de Cuba</site><states>Cuba</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>992</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(viii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1999</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/889</http_url><id_number>889</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_889.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cu</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The uplifted marine terraces of the Desembarco del Granma National Park and associated ongoing development of karst topography and features, represent a globally significant example of geomorphologic and physiographic features and ongoing geological processes. The area includes spectacular stair-step terraces and cliffs and the ecosystems that have evolved on them, as well as some of the most pristine and impressive coastal cliffs bordering the Western Atlantic between the Canadian Maritimes and southern South America.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>19.8833300000</latitude><location>Desembarco del Granma National Park, south-east corner of the the Republic of Cuba</location><longitude>-77.6333300000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Desembarco del Granma National Park, with its uplifted marine terraces and associated ongoing development of karst topography and features, represents a globally significant example of geomorphologic and physiographic features and ongoing geological processes. The area, which is situated in and around Cabo Cruz in south-east Cuba, includes spectacular terraces and cliffs, as well as some of the most pristine and impressive coastal cliffs bordering the western Atlantic.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Desembarco del Granma National Park</site><states>Cuba</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1041</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2000</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1008</http_url><id_number>1008</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1008.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cu</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;Criterion iii The remains of the 19th and early 20th century coffee plantations in eastern Cuba are unique and eloquent testimony to a form of agricultural exploitation of virgin forest, the traces of which have disappeared elsewhere in the world. Criterion iv The production of coffee in eastern Cuba during the 19th and early 20th centuries resulted in the creation of a unique cultural landscape, illustrating a significant stage in the development of this form of agriculture.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>20.0300000000</latitude><location>Santiago and Guantanamo Provinces, South-Eastern Region</location><longitude>-75.3913888900</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The remains of the 19th-century coffee plantations in the foothills of the Sierra Maestra are unique evidence of a pioneer form of agriculture in a difficult terrain. They throw considerable light on the economic, social, and technological history of the Caribbean and Latin American region.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Archaeological Landscape of the First Coffee Plantations in the South-East of Cuba</site><states>Cuba</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1178</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2005</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1202</http_url><id_number>1202</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1202.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cu</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii): &lt;/em&gt;The historic town of Cienfuegos exhibits an important interchange of influences based on the Spanish Enlightenment, and it is an outstanding early example of their implementation in urban planning in Latin America in the 19th century.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv): &lt;/em&gt;Cienfuegos is the first and an outstanding example of an architectural ensemble representing the new ideas of modernity, hygiene and order, in urban planning as these developed in the Latin America from the 19th century.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>22.1472200000</latitude><location>Municipality of Cienfuegos</location><longitude>-80.4527800000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The colonial town of Cienfuegos was founded in 1819 in the Spanish territory but was initially settled by immigrants of French origin. It became a trading place for sugar cane, tobacco and coffee. Situated on the Caribbean coast of southern-central Cuba at the heart of the country’s sugar cane, mango, tobacco and coffee production area, the town first developed in the neoclassical style. It later became more eclectic but retained a harmonious overall townscape. Among buildings of particular interest are the Government Palace (City Hall), San Lorenzo School, the Bishopric, the Ferrer Palace, the former lyceum, and some residential houses. Cienfuegos is the first, and an outstanding example of an architectural ensemble representing the new ideas of modernity, hygiene and order in urban planning as developed in Latin America from the 19th century.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Urban Historic Centre of Cienfuegos </site><states>Cuba</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1379</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2008</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1270</http_url><id_number>1270</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1270.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cu</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>21.3786111111</latitude><location>Camagüey Province</location><longitude>-77.9186111111</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;One of the first seven villages founded by the Spaniards in Cuba, Camag&amp;uuml;ey played a prominent role as the urban centre of an inland territory dedicated to cattle breeding and the sugar industry. Settled in its current location in 1528, the town developed on the basis of an irregular urban pattern that contains a system of large and minor squares, serpentine streets, alleys and irregular urban blocks, highly exceptional for Latin American colonial towns located in plain territories. The 54 ha Historic Centre of Camag&amp;uuml;ey constitutes an exceptional example of a traditional urban settlement relatively isolated from main trade routes. The Spanish colonizers followed medieval European influences in terms of urban layout and traditional construction techniques brought to the Americas by their masons and construction masters. The property reflects the influence of numerous styles through the ages: neoclassical, eclectic, Art Deco, Neo-colonial as well as some Art Nouveau and rationalism.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic Centre of Camagüey</site><states>Cuba</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1482</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1980</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/79</http_url><id_number>79</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_79.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cy</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>34.7583300000</latitude><location>District of Paphos</location><longitude>32.4055600000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Paphos has been inhabited since the Neolithic period. It was a centre of the cult of Aphrodite and of pre-Hellenic fertility deities. Aphrodite's legendary birthplace was on this island, where her temple was erected by the Myceneans in the 12th century B.C. The remains of villas, palaces, theatres, fortresses and tombs mean that the site is of exceptional architectural and historic value. The mosaics of Nea Paphos are among the most beautiful in the world.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Paphos</site><states>Cyprus</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>85</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1985</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/351</http_url><id_number>351</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_351.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cy</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>34.9202777800</latitude><location>Troodos Region, Districts of Nicosia and Limassol</location><longitude>33.0958333300</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2001</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This region is characterized by one of the largest groups of churches and monasteries of the former Byzantine Empire. The complex of 10 monuments included on the World Heritage List, all richly decorated with murals, provides an overview of Byzantine and post-Byzantine painting in Cyprus. They range from small churches whose rural architectural style is in stark contrast to their highly refined decoration, to monasteries such as that of St John Lampadistis.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Painted Churches in the Troodos Region</site><states>Cyprus</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>401</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1998</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/848</http_url><id_number>848</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_848.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cy</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; In the prehistoric period, Cyprus played a key role in the transmission of culture from the Near East to the European world. Criterion (iii): Choirokhoitia is an exceptionally well preserved archaeological site that has provided, and will continue to provide, scientific data of great importance relating to the spread of civilization from Asia to the Mediterranean world. Criterion (iv): Both the excavated remains and the untouched part of Choirokhoitia demonstrate clearly the origins of proto-urban settlement in the Mediterranean region and beyond.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>34.7983300000</latitude><location>District of Larnaca</location><longitude>33.3433300000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Neolithic settlement of Choirokoitia, occupied from the 7th to the 4th millennium B.C., is one of the most important prehistoric sites in the eastern Mediterranean. Its remains and the finds from the excavations there have thrown much light on the evolution of human society in this key region. Since only part of the site has been excavated, it forms an exceptional archaeological reserve for future study.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Choirokoitia</site><states>Cyprus</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1927</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1992</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/617</http_url><id_number>617</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_617.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cz</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>48.8166666700</latitude><location>South Bohemian Region</location><longitude>14.3166666700</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Situated on the banks of the Vltava river, the town was built around a 13th-century castle with Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque elements. It is an outstanding example of a small central European medieval town whose architectural heritage has remained intact thanks to its peaceful evolution over more than five centuries.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic Centre of Český Krumlov</site><states>Czechia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>732</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1992</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/621</http_url><id_number>621</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_621.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cz</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>49.1833300000</latitude><location>Vysocina Region</location><longitude>15.4500000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The houses in Telc, which stands on a hilltop, were originally built of wood. After a fire in the late 14th century, the town was rebuilt in stone, surrounded by walls and further strengthened by a network of artificial ponds. The town's Gothic castle was reconstructed in High Gothic style in the late 15th century.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic Centre of Telč</site><states>Czechia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>738</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1994</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/690</http_url><id_number>690</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_690.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cz</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>49.5802000000</latitude><location>South Moravian Region</location><longitude>15.9420583333</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This pilgrimage church, built in honour of St John of Nepomuk, stands at Zelená Hora, not far from Ždár nad Sázavou in Moravia. Constructed at the beginning of the 18th century on a star-shaped plan, it is the most unusual work by the great architect Jan Blazej Santini, whose highly original style falls between neo-Gothic and Baroque.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Pilgrimage Church of St John of Nepomuk at Zelená Hora</site><states>Czechia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>816</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1995</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/732</http_url><id_number>732</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_732.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cz</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>49.9500000000</latitude><location>City and District of Kutná Hora, Central Bohemian Region</location><longitude>15.2666666667</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Kutná Hora developed as a result of the exploitation of the silver mines. In the 14th century it became a royal city endowed with monuments that symbolized its prosperity. The Church of St Barbara, a jewel of the late Gothic period, and the Cathedral of Our Lady at Sedlec, which was restored in line with the Baroque taste of the early 18th century, were to influence the architecture of central Europe. These masterpieces today form part of a well-preserved medieval urban fabric with some particularly fine private dwellings.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Kutná Hora: Historical Town Centre with the Church of St Barbara and the Cathedral of Our Lady at Sedlec</site><states>Czechia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>865</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1996</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/763</http_url><id_number>763</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_763.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cz</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee decided to inscribe the nominated property on the basis of cultural criteria (i),(ii) and (iv) considering that the site is of outstanding universal value being a cultural landscape which is an exceptional example of the designed landscape that evolved in the Enlightenment and afterwards under the care of a single family. It succeeds in bringing together in harmony cultural monuments from successive periods and both indigenous and exotic natural elements to create an outstanding work of human creativity. The Committee decided to include criterion (i) to the proposed criteria since the ensemble is an outstanding example of human creativity.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>48.7758300000</latitude><location>Breclav District, South Moravian Region</location><longitude>16.7750000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Between the 17th and 20th centuries, the ruling dukes of Liechtenstein transformed their domains in southern Moravia into a striking landscape. It married Baroque architecture (mainly the work of Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach) and the classical and neo-Gothic style of the castles of Lednice and Valtice with countryside fashioned according to English romantic principles of landscape architecture. At 200 km&lt;sup&gt;2&lt;/sup&gt; , it is one of the largest artificial landscapes in Europe.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Lednice-Valtice Cultural Landscape</site><states>Czechia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>899</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2000</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/859</http_url><id_number>859</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_859.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cz</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (i):&lt;/em&gt; The Olomouc Holy Trinity Column is one of the most exceptional examples of the apogee of central European Baroque artistic expression.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; The Holy Trinity Column constituted a unique material demonstration of religious faith in central Europe during the Baroque period, and the Olomouc example represents its most outstanding expression.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>49.5939361111</latitude><location>Olomouc Region</location><longitude>17.2504583333</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This memorial column, erected in the early years of the 18th century, is the most outstanding example of a type of monument specific to central Europe. In the characteristic regional style known as Olomouc Baroque and rising to a height of 35 m, it is decorated with many fine religious sculptures, the work of the distinguished Moravian artist Ondrej Zahner.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc</site><states>Czechia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1010</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1998</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/860</http_url><id_number>860</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_860.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cz</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; The ensemble at Kroměříž, and in particular the Pleasure Garden, played a significant role in the development of Baroque garden and palace design in central Europe.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; The Gardens and Castle at Kroměříž are an exceptionally complete and well preserved example of a princely residence and its associated landscape of the 17th and 18th centuries.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>49.3000000000</latitude><location>City and District of Kroměříž, Zlin Region</location><longitude>17.3772222200</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Kroměříž stands on the site of an earlier ford across the River Morava, at the foot of the Chriby mountain range which dominates the central part of Moravia. The gardens and castle of Kroměříž are an exceptionally complete and well-preserved example of a European Baroque princely residence and its gardens.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Gardens and Castle at Kroměříž</site><states>Czechia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1011</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1998</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/861</http_url><id_number>861</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_861.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cz</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; Holasovice is of special significance in that it represents the fusion of two vernacular building traditions to create an exceptional and enduring style, known as South Bohemian Folk Baroque.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; The exceptional completeness and excellent preservation of Holasovice and its buildings make it an outstanding example of traditional rural settlement in central Europe.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>48.9597222200</latitude><location>South Bohemian Region</location><longitude>14.2527777800</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Holašovice is an exceptionally complete and well-preserved example of a traditional central European village. It has a large number of outstanding 18th- and 19th-century vernacular buildings in a style known as 'South Bohemian folk Baroque', and preserves a ground plan dating from the Middle Ages.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Holašovice Historic Village</site><states>Czechia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1012</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1999</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/901</http_url><id_number>901</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_901.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cz</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; Litomyšl Castle is an outstanding and immaculately preserved example of the arcade castle, a type of building first developed in Italy and modified in the Czech lands to create an evolved form of special architectural quality.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; Litomyšl Castle illustrates in an exceptional way the aristocratic residences of central Europe in the Renaissance and their subsequent development under the influence of new artistic movements.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>49.8736100000</latitude><location>Pardubice Region</location><longitude>16.3144400000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Litomyšl Castle was originally a Renaissance arcade-castle of the type first developed in Italy and then adopted and greatly developed in central Europe in the 16th century. Its design and decoration are particularly fine, including the later High-Baroque features added in the 18th century. It preserves intact the range of ancillary buildings associated with an aristocratic residence of this type.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Litomyšl Castle</site><states>Czechia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1054</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2001</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1052</http_url><id_number>1052</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1052.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cz</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (i):&lt;/em&gt; The Tugendhat Villa is a masterpiece of the Modern Movement in architecture.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; The German architect Mies van der Rohe applied the radical new concepts of the Modern Movement triumphantly to the Tugendhat Villa to the design of residential buildings.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; Architecture was revolutionized by the Modern Movement in the 1920s and the work of Mies van der Rohe, epitomized by the Tugendhat Villa, played a major role in its worldwide diffusion and acceptance.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>49.2071833333</latitude><location>South Moravian Region</location><longitude>16.6160555556</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Tugendhat Villa in Brno, designed by the architect Mies van der Rohe, is an outstanding example of the international style in the modern movement in architecture as it developed in Europe in the 1920s. Its particular value lies in the application of innovative spatial and aesthetic concepts that aim to satisfy new lifestyle needs by taking advantage of the opportunities afforded by modern industrial production.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Tugendhat Villa in Brno</site><states>Czechia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1226</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1992</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/616</http_url><id_number>616</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_616.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cz</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>50.0897200000</latitude><location>Prague</location><longitude>14.4194400000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Built between the 11th and 18th centuries, the Old Town, the Lesser Town and the New Town speak of the great architectural and cultural influence enjoyed by this city since the Middle Ages. The many magnificent monuments, such as Hradcany Castle, St Vitus Cathedral, Charles Bridge and numerous churches and palaces, built mostly in the 14th century under the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles IV.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic Centre of Prague</site><states>Czechia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1928</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2003</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1078</http_url><id_number>1078</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1078.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cz</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; The Jewish Quarter and St Procopius Basilica of Trebic bear witness to the coexistence of and interchange of values between two different cultures, Jewish and Christian, over many centuries.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii):&lt;/em&gt; the Jewish Quarter of Trebic is an exceptional testimony to the cultural traditions related to the Jewish diaspora in central Europe.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>49.2172222200</latitude><location>Trebic district, Vysocina Region</location><longitude>15.8788888900</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The ensemble of the Jewish Quarter, the old Jewish cemetery and the Basilica of St Procopius in Třebíč are reminders of the co-existence of Jewish and Christian cultures from the Middle Ages to the 20th century. The Jewish Quarter bears outstanding testimony to the different aspects of the life of this community. St Procopius' Basilica, built as part of the Benedictine monastery in the early 13th century, is a remarkable example of the influence of Western European architectural heritage in this region.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Jewish Quarter and St Procopius' Basilica in Třebíč</site><states>Czechia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2258</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2019</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1589</http_url><id_number>1589</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1589.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cz</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>50.0566500000</latitude><location></location><longitude>15.4842583333</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The property is situated on the Elbe (Labe) River flood plain where there is sandy soil, ox bow lakes and the relic of a riparian forest. The structure and functional use of plots of land (pastures, meadows, forests, fields, park), network of paths, avenues, trees in regimented lines and arranged clusters as well as the solitary trees, the network of watercourses, ensembles of buildings in the farmsteads and the overall composition including functional relations and links between these components - all this fully serves the needs of breeding and training of the Baroque draught horses of the Kladruber breed which were used during the ceremonies at the Habsburg Imperial Court. The composition of the landscape is the evidence of the intentional artistic approach to the landscape. The property is a rare example of the synthesis of two types of cultural landscape - living and organically developing landscape where its key function dominates and the manmade landscape intentionally designed and created using the principles of the French and English landscape architecture which is an outstanding example of the specialised decorative farm - &lt;em&gt;ferme ornée&lt;/em&gt;. The Imperial Stud Farm was founded in 1579 and its landscape has been used for this purpose since then.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Landscape for Breeding and Training of Ceremonial Carriage Horses at Kladruby nad Labem</site><states>Czechia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2281</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2004</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1091</http_url><id_number>1091</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1091.jpg</image_url><iso_code>kp</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (i):&lt;/em&gt; The wall paintings of the Koguryo Tombs are masterpieces of the culture and period of the Koguryo kingdom; the construction of the tombs demonstrates ingenious engineering solutions.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; The special burial customs of the Koguryo culture had an important influence on other cultures in the region, including those in Japan.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii):&lt;/em&gt; The Koguryo Tombs are an exceptional testimony of the Koguryo culture, its burial customs as well as its daily life and beliefs.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv): &lt;/em&gt;The complex of Koguryo Tombs is an important example of burial typology.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>38.8630555600</latitude><location>Pyongyang, South Phyongan Province, Nampho, South Hwangghae Province</location><longitude>125.4150000000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The property includes several group and individual tombs - totalling about 30 individual tombs - from the later period of the Koguryo Kingdom, one of the strongest kingdoms in nowadays northeast China and half of the Korean peninsula between the 3rd century BC to 7th century AD. The tombs, many with beautiful wall paintings, are almost the only remains of this culture. Only about 90 out of more than 10,000 Koguryo tombs discovered in China and Korea so far, have wall paintings. Almost half of these tombs are located on this site and they are thought to have been made for the burial of kings, members of the royal family and the aristocracy. These paintings offer a unique testimony to daily life of this period.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Complex of Koguryo Tombs</site><states>Democratic People's Republic of Korea</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1269</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2013</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1278</http_url><id_number>1278</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1278.jpg</image_url><iso_code>kp</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>37.9816666667</latitude><location></location><longitude>126.5080555556</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Situated in Kaesong city, in the south of the country, the site consists of 12 separate components, which together testify to the history and culture of the Koryo Dynasty from the 10th to 14th centuries. The geomantic layout of the former capital city of Kaesong, its palaces, institutions and tomb complex, defensive walls and gates embody the political, cultural, philosophical and spiritual values of a crucial era in the region&amp;rsquo;s history.&amp;nbsp; The monuments inscribed also include an astronomical and meteorological observatory, two schools (including one dedicated to educating national officials) and commemorative steles. The site testifies to the transition from Buddhism to neo-Confucianism in East Asia and to the assimilation of the cultural spiritual and political values of the states that existed prior to Korea&amp;rsquo;s unification under the Koryo Dynasty. The integration of Buddhist, Confucian, Taoist and geomantic concepts is manifest in the planning of the site and the architecture of its monuments.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic Monuments and Sites in Kaesong</site><states>Democratic People's Republic of Korea</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1878</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(viii)(x)</criteria_txt><danger>Y 1994</danger><date_inscribed>1979</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/63</http_url><id_number>63</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_63.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cd</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>0.9166666670</latitude><location>Province of North-Kivu and Orientale province </location><longitude>29.1666666700</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Virunga National Park (covering an area of 790,000 ha) comprises an outstanding diversity of habitats, ranging from swamps and steppes to the snowfields of Rwenzori at an altitude of over 5,000 m, and from lava plains to the savannahs on the slopes of volcanoes. Mountain gorillas are found in the park, some 20,000 hippopotamuses live in the rivers and birds from Siberia spend the winter there.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Virunga National Park</site><states>Democratic Republic of the Congo</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>67</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(x)</criteria_txt><danger>Y 1996 P 1984-1992</danger><date_inscribed>1980</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/136</http_url><id_number>136</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_136.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cd</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>4.0000000000</latitude><location>Orientale Province </location><longitude>29.2500000000</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The park's immense savannahs, grasslands and woodlands, interspersed with gallery forests along the river banks and the swampy depressions, are home to four large mammals: the elephant, giraffe, hippopotamus and above all the white rhinoceros. Though much larger than the black rhino, it is harmless; only some 30 individuals remain.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Garamba National Park</site><states>Democratic Republic of the Congo</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>149</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(x)</criteria_txt><danger>Y 1997</danger><date_inscribed>1980</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/137</http_url><id_number>137</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_137.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cd</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-2.5000000000</latitude><location>Provinces of South-Kivu and Maniena</location><longitude>28.7500000000</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;A vast area of primary tropical forest dominated by two spectacular extinct volcanoes, Kahuzi and Biega, the park has a diverse and abundant fauna. One of the last groups of eastern lowland (graueri) gorillas (consisting of only some 250 individuals) lives at between 2,100 and 2,400 m above sea-level.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Kahuzi-Biega National Park</site><states>Democratic Republic of the Congo</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>150</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(ix)</criteria_txt><danger>Y 1999</danger><date_inscribed>1984</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/280</http_url><id_number>280</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_280.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cd</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-2.0000000000</latitude><location>Provinces of Equateur, Bandundu and Kasaï Oriental and Occidental&#xd;
</location><longitude>21.0000000000</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Salonga National Park is Africa's largest tropical rainforest reserve. Situated at the heart of the central basin of the Congo river, the park is very isolated and accessible only by water. It is the habitat of many endemic endangered species, such as the dwarf chimpanzee, the Congo peacock, the forest elephant and the African slender-snouted or 'false' crocodile.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Salonga National Park</site><states>Democratic Republic of the Congo</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>314</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(x)</criteria_txt><danger>Y 1997</danger><date_inscribed>1996</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/718</http_url><id_number>718</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_718.jpg</image_url><iso_code>cd</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee inscribed the property as one of the most important sites for conservation, including the rare Okapi and rich floral diversity, under natural &lt;em&gt;criterion (x)&lt;/em&gt;. The Committee expressed its hope that the activities outlined in the new management plan would ensure the integrity of the site. Considering the civil unrest in the country, the question of the long-term security of the site was raised.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>2.0000000000</latitude><location>Orientale Province </location><longitude>28.5000000000</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Okapi Wildlife Reserve occupies about one-fifth of the Ituri forest in the north-east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The Congo river basin, of which the reserve and forest are a part, is one of the largest drainage systems in Africa. The reserve contains threatened species of primates and birds and about 5,000 of the estimated 30,000 okapi surviving in the wild. It also has some dramatic scenery, including waterfalls on the Ituri and Epulu rivers. The reserve is inhabited by traditional nomadic pygmy Mbuti and Efe hunters.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Okapi Wildlife Reserve</site><states>Democratic Republic of the Congo</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>849</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1995</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/695</http_url><id_number>695</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_695.jpg</image_url><iso_code>dk</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>55.6422222200</latitude><location>Island of Sjaelland, City of Roskilde, Sealand Region&#xd;
&#xd;
&#xd;
</location><longitude>12.0797222200</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Built in the 12th and 13th centuries, this was Scandinavia's first Gothic cathedral to be built of brick and it encouraged the spread of this style throughout northern Europe. It has been the mausoleum of the Danish royal family since the 15th century. Porches and side chapels were added up to the end of the 19th century. Thus it provides a clear overview of the development of European religious architecture.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Roskilde Cathedral</site><states>Denmark</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>822</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2000</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/696</http_url><id_number>696</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_696.jpg</image_url><iso_code>dk</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; Kronborg Castle is an outstanding example of the Renaissance castle, and one which played a highly significant role in the history of this region of northern Europe.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>56.0388900000</latitude><location>Island of Sjaelland, City of Helsingör, Capital Region of Denmark&#xd;
</location><longitude>12.6208333300</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Located on a strategically important site commanding the Sund, the stretch of water between Denmark and Sweden, the Royal castle of Kronborg at Helsing&amp;oslash;r (Elsinore) is of immense symbolic value to the Danish people and played a key role in the history of northern Europe in the 16th-18th centuries. Work began on the construction of this outstanding Renaissance castle in 1574, and its defences were reinforced according to the canons of the period's military architecture in the late 17th century. It has remained intact to the present day. It is world-renowned as Elsinore, the setting of Shakespeare's Hamlet.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Kronborg Castle</site><states>Denmark</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>824</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(viii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2014</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1416</http_url><id_number>1416</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1416.jpg</image_url><iso_code>dk</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>55.2672222222</latitude><location></location><longitude>12.4233333333</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This geological site comprises a 15 km-long fossil-rich coastal cliff, offering exceptional evidence of the impact of the Chicxulub meteorite that crashed into the planet at the end of the Cretaceous, about 65 million years ago. Researchers think that this caused the most remarkable mass extinction ever, responsible for the disappearance of over 50 per cent of all life on Earth. The site harbours a record of the cloud of ash formed by the impact of the meteorite – the exact site being at the bottom of the ocean off the coast of Mexico’s Yucatán Peninsula. An exceptional fossil record is visible at the site, showing the complete succession of fauna and micro-fauna charting the recovery after the mass extinction.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Stevns Klint</site><states>Denmark</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1973</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2015</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1468</http_url><id_number>1468</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1468.jpg</image_url><iso_code>dk</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>55.3555555556</latitude><location>N55 21 20 E9 28 53</location><longitude>9.4813888889</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Founded in 1773 in South Jutland, the site is an example of a planned settlement of the Moravian Church, a Lutheran free congregation centred in Herrnhut, Saxony. The town was planned to represent the Protestant urban ideal, constructed around a central Church square. The architecture is homogenous and unadorned, with one and two-storey buildings in yellow brick with red tile roofs. The democratic organization of the Moravian Church, with its pioneering egalitarian philosophy, is expressed in its humanistic town planning. The settlement’s plan opens onto agricultural land and includes important buildings for the common welfare such as large communal houses for the congregation’s widows and unmarried men and women. The buildings are still in use and many are still owned by the local Moravian Church community .&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Christiansfeld, a Moravian Church Settlement</site><states>Denmark</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2029</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2015</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1469</http_url><id_number>1469</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1469.jpg</image_url><iso_code>dk</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>55.9136111111</latitude><location></location><longitude>12.3577777778</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Located about 30 km northeast of Copenhagen, this cultural landscape encompasses the two hunting forests of Store Dyrehave and Gribskov, as well as the hunting park of Jægersborg Hegn/Jægersborg Dyrehave. This is a designed landscape where Danish kings and their court practiced par force hunting, or hunting with hounds, which reached its peak between the 17th and the late 18th centuries, when the absloute monarchs transformed it into a landscape of power. With hunting lanes laid out in a star system, combined with an orthogonal grid pattern, numbered stone posts, fences and a hunting lodge, the site demonstrates the application of Baroque landscaping principles to forested areas.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>The par force hunting landscape in North Zealand</site><states>Denmark</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2030</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2017</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1536</http_url><id_number>1536</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1536.jpg</image_url><iso_code>dk</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>61.1644444444</latitude><location></location><longitude>-45.5980555556</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Kujataa is a subarctic farming landscape located in the southern region of Greenland. It bears witness to the cultural histories of the Norse farmer-hunters who started arriving from Iceland in the 10th century and of the Inuit hunters and Inuit farming communities that developed from the end of the 18th century. Despite their differences, the two cultures, European Norse and Inuit, created a cultural landscape based on farming, grazing and marine mammal hunting. The landscape represents the earliest introduction of farming to the Arctic, and the Norse expansion of settlement beyond Europe.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Kujataa Greenland: Norse and Inuit Farming at the Edge of the Ice Cap</site><states>Denmark</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2154</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2018</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1557</http_url><id_number>1557</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1557.jpg</image_url><iso_code>dk</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>67.0639305556</latitude><location></location><longitude>-51.4332055556</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Located inside the Arctic Circle in the central part of West Greenland, the property contains the remains of 4,200 years of human history. It is a cultural landscape which bears witness to its creators’ hunting of land and sea animals, seasonal migrations and a rich and well-preserved tangible and intangible cultural heritage linked to climate, navigation and medicine. The features of the property include large winter houses and evidence of caribou hunting, as well as archaeological sites from Paleo-Inuit and Inuit cultures. The cultural landscape includes seven key localities, from Nipisat in the west to Aasivissuit, near the ice cap in the east. It bears testimony to the resilience of the human cultures of the region and their traditions of seasonal migration.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Aasivissuit – Nipisat. Inuit Hunting Ground between Ice and Sea</site><states>Denmark</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2221</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1994</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/697</http_url><id_number>697</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_697.jpg</image_url><iso_code>dk</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>55.7563888900</latitude><location>Vejle Commune, Region of Southern Denmark</location><longitude>9.4200000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Jelling burial mounds and one of the runic stones are striking examples of pagan Nordic culture, while the other runic stone and the church illustrate the Christianization of the Danish people towards the middle of the 10th century.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Jelling Mounds, Runic Stones and Church</site><states>Denmark</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2316</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(viii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2004</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1149</http_url><id_number>1149</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1149.jpg</image_url><iso_code>dk</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (viii):&lt;/em&gt; The Ilulissat Icefjord is an outstanding example of a stage in the Earth’s history: the last ice age of the Quaternary Period. The ice-stream is one of the fastest (19m per day) and most active in the world. Its annual calving of over 35 cu. km of ice accounts for 10% of the production of all Greenland calf ice, more than any other glacier outside Antarctica. The glacier has been the object of scientific attention for 250 years and, along with its relative ease of accessibility, has significantly added to the understanding of ice-cap glaciology, climate change and related geomorphic processes.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (vii):&lt;/em&gt; The combination of a huge ice sheet and a fast moving glacial ice-stream calving into a fjord covered by icebergs is a phenomenon only seen in Greenland and Antarctica. Ilulissat offers both scientists and visitors easy access for close view of the calving glacier front as it cascades down from the ice sheet and into the ice-choked fjord. The wild and highly scenic combination of rock, ice and sea, along with the dramatic sounds produced by the moving ice, combine to present a memorable natural spectacle.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>69.1333333300</latitude><location>West coast of Greenland, Bay of Disko Bugt (bight), Municipality of Ilulissat</location><longitude>-49.5000000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Located on the west coast of Greenland, 250 km north of the Arctic Circle, Greenland’s Ilulissat Icefjord is the sea mouth of Sermeq Kujalleq, one of the few glaciers through which the Greenland ice cap reaches the sea. Sermeq Kujalleq is one of the fastest and most active glaciers in the world. It annually calves over 35 km3 of ice, i.e. 10% of the production of all Greenland calf ice and more than any other glacier outside Antarctica. Studied for over 250 years, it has helped to develop our understanding of climate change and icecap glaciology. The combination of a huge ice-sheet and the dramatic sounds of a fast-moving glacial ice-stream calving into a fjord covered by icebergs makes for a dramatic and awe-inspiring natural phenomenon.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Ilulissat Icefjord</site><states>Denmark</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2354</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(viii)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1997</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/814</http_url><id_number>814</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_814.jpg</image_url><iso_code>dm</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee inscribed the Morne Trois Pitons National Park on the basis of natural &lt;em&gt;criteria (viii)&lt;/em&gt; and &lt;em&gt;(x)&lt;/em&gt; for its diverse flora with endemic species of vascular plants, its volcanoes, rivers and waterfalls, illustrating ongoing geo-morphological processes with high scenic value.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>15.2666666700</latitude><location>South central part of the island</location><longitude>-61.2833333300</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Luxuriant natural tropical forest blends with scenic volcanic features of great scientific interest in this national park centred on the 1,342-m-high volcano known as Morne Trois Pitons. With its precipitous slopes and deeply incised valleys, 50 fumaroles, hot springs, three freshwater lakes, a 'boiling lake' and five volcanoes, located on the park's nearly 7,000 ha, together with the richest biodiversity in the Lesser Antilles, Morne Trois Pitons National Park presents a rare combination of natural features of World Heritage value.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Morne Trois Pitons National Park</site><states>Dominica</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>962</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1990</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/526</http_url><id_number>526</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_526.jpg</image_url><iso_code>do</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>18.4833333300</latitude><location>Distrito Nacional</location><longitude>-69.9166666700</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;After Christopher Columbus's arrival on the island in 1492, Santo Domingo became the site of the first cathedral, hospital, customs house and university in the Americas. This colonial town, founded in 1498, was laid out on a grid pattern that became the model for almost all town planners in the New World.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Colonial City of Santo Domingo</site><states>Dominican Republic</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>615</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(viii)(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger>P 2007-2010</danger><date_inscribed>1978</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1</http_url><id_number>1</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ec</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-0.8166700000</latitude><location>Cantons: San Cristobal, Santa Cruz and Isabela, Province of Galapagos</location><longitude>-91.0000000000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2001</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Situated in the Pacific Ocean some 1,000 km from the South American continent, these 19 islands and the surrounding marine reserve have been called a unique ‘living museum and showcase of evolution’. Located at the confluence of three ocean currents, the Galápagos are a ‘melting pot’ of marine species. Ongoing seismic and volcanic activity reflects the processes that formed the islands. These processes, together with the extreme isolation of the islands, led to the development of unusual animal life – such as the land iguana, the giant tortoise and the many types of finch – that inspired Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection following his visit in 1835.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Galápagos Islands</site><states>Ecuador</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>4</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1978</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/2</http_url><id_number>2</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_2.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ec</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-0.2200000000</latitude><location>Province of Pinchinada, City and Canton of Quito</location><longitude>-78.5120833333</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Quito, the capital of Ecuador, was founded in the 16th century on the ruins of an Inca city and stands at an altitude of 2,850 m. Despite the 1917 earthquake, the city has the best-preserved, least altered historic centre in Latin America. The monasteries of San Francisco and Santo Domingo, and the Church and Jesuit College of La Compañía, with their rich interiors, are pure examples of the 'Baroque school of Quito', which is a fusion of Spanish, Italian, Moorish, Flemish and indigenous art.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>City of Quito</site><states>Ecuador</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>5</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(viii)(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger>P 1992-2005</danger><date_inscribed>1983</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/260</http_url><id_number>260</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_260.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ec</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-1.8333300000</latitude><location>Provinces of Morona Santiago, Chimborazo and Tungurahua</location><longitude>-78.3333300000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;With its outstanding natural beauty and two active volcanoes, the park illustrates the entire spectrum of ecosystems, ranging from tropical rainforests to glaciers, with striking contrasts between the snowcapped peaks and the forests of the plains. Its isolation has encouraged the survival of indigenous species such as the mountain tapir and the Andean condor.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Sangay National Park</site><states>Ecuador</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>290</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1999</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/863</http_url><id_number>863</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_863.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ec</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;Criterion (ii): Cuenca illustrates the successful implantation of the principles of Renaissance urban planning in the Americas. Criterion (iv): The successful fusion of different societies and cultures in Latin America is vividly symbolized by the layout and townscape of Cuenca. Criterion (v): Cuenca is an outstanding example of a planned inland Spanish colonial city.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>-2.8833333330</latitude><location>Province of Azuay</location><longitude>-78.9833333300</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Santa Ana de los R&amp;iacute;os de Cuenca is set in a valley surrounded by the Andean mountains in the south of Ecuador. This inland colonial town (&lt;em&gt;entroterra&lt;/em&gt; ), now the country's third city, was founded in 1557 on the rigorous planning guidelines issued 30 years earlier by the Spanish king Charles V. Cuenca still observes the formal orthogonal town plan that it has respected for 400 years. One of the region's agricultural and administrative centres, it has been a melting pot for local and immigrant populations. Cuenca's architecture, much of which dates from the 18th century, was 'modernized' in the economic prosperity of the 19th century as the city became a major exporter of quinine, straw hats and other products.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic Centre of Santa Ana de los Ríos de Cuenca</site><states>Ecuador</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1014</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1979</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/86</http_url><id_number>86</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_86.jpg</image_url><iso_code>eg</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>29.9760400000</latitude><location>Governorate of Giza</location><longitude>31.1304100000</longitude><region>Arab States</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The capital of the Old Kingdom of Egypt has some extraordinary funerary monuments, including rock tombs, ornate mastabas, temples and pyramids. In ancient times, the site was considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Memphis and its Necropolis – the Pyramid Fields from Giza to Dahshur</site><states>Egypt</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>92</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1979</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/87</http_url><id_number>87</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_87.jpg</image_url><iso_code>eg</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>25.7333300000</latitude><location>Governorate of Qina</location><longitude>32.6000000000</longitude><region>Arab States</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Thebes, the city of the god Amon, was the capital of Egypt during the period of the Middle and New Kingdoms. With the temples and palaces at Karnak and Luxor, and the necropolises of the Valley of the Kings and the Valley of the Queens, Thebes is a striking testimony to Egyptian civilization at its height.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Ancient Thebes with its Necropolis</site><states>Egypt</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>93</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1979</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/88</http_url><id_number>88</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_88.jpg</image_url><iso_code>eg</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>22.3372222222</latitude><location>Governorate of Aswan</location><longitude>31.6258055556</longitude><region>Arab States</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This outstanding archaeological area contains such magnificent monuments as the Temples of Ramses II at Abu Simbel and the Sanctuary of Isis at Philae, which were saved from the rising waters of the Nile thanks to the International Campaign launched by UNESCO, in 1960 to 1980.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Nubian Monuments from Abu Simbel to Philae</site><states>Egypt</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>94</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(v)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1979</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/89</http_url><id_number>89</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_89.jpg</image_url><iso_code>eg</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>30.0500000000</latitude><location>Governorate of al-Qahirah (Cairo)</location><longitude>31.2611100000</longitude><region>Arab States</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Tucked away amid the modern urban area of Cairo lies one of the world's oldest Islamic cities, with its famous mosques, &lt;em&gt;madrasas, hammams&lt;/em&gt; and fountains. Founded in the 10th century, it became the new centre of the Islamic world, reaching its golden age in the 14th century.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic Cairo</site><states>Egypt</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>95</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)</criteria_txt><danger>Y 2001</danger><date_inscribed>1979</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/90</http_url><id_number>90</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_90.jpg</image_url><iso_code>eg</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>30.8358333333</latitude><location>Mariut desert, District of Burg al-Arab, Gouvernate of Al Iskandariyah (Alexandria)</location><longitude>29.6666666700</longitude><region>Arab States</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The church, baptistry, basilicas, public buildings, streets, monasteries, houses and workshops in this early Christian holy city were built over the tomb of the martyr Menas of Alexandria, who died in A.D. 296.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Abu Mena</site><states>Egypt</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>96</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2002</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/954</http_url><id_number>954</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_954.jpg</image_url><iso_code>eg</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (i):&lt;/em&gt; The architecture of St Catherine's Monastery, the artistic treasures that it houses, and its domestic integration into a rugged landscape combine to make it an outstanding example of human creative genius.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii):&lt;/em&gt; St Catherine's Monastery is one of the very early outstanding examples in Eastern tradition of a Christian monastic settlement located in a remote area. It demonstrates an intimate relationship between natural grandeur and spiritual commitment.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; Ascetic monasticism in remote areas prevailed in the early Christian church and resulted in the establishment of monastic communities in remote places. St Catherine's Monastery is one of the earliest of these and the oldest to have survived intact, being used for its initial function without interruption since the 6th century.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (vi):&lt;/em&gt; The St Catherine&amp;rsquo;s area, centred on the holy mountain of Mount Sina&amp;iuml; (Jebel Musa, Mount Horeb), like the Old City of Jerusalem, is sacred to three world religions: Christianity, Islam, and Judaism.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>28.5562300000</latitude><location>Governorate of Janub Sina' (South Sinai)</location><longitude>33.9754300000</longitude><region>Arab States</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Orthodox Monastery of St Catherine stands at the foot of Mount Horeb where, the Old Testament records, Moses received the Tablets of the Law. The mountain is known and revered by Muslims as Jebel Musa. The entire area is sacred to three world religions: Christianity, Islam, and Judaism. The Monastery, founded in the 6th century, is the oldest Christian monastery still in use for its initial function. Its walls and buildings of great significace to studies of Byzantine architecture and the Monastery houses outstanding collections of early Christian manuscripts and icons. The rugged mountainous landscape, containing numerous archaeological and religious sites and monuments, forms a perfect backdrop to the Monastery.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Saint Catherine Area</site><states>Egypt</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1116</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(viii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2005</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1186</http_url><id_number>1186</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1186.jpg</image_url><iso_code>eg</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (viii): &lt;/em&gt;Wadi Al-Hitan is the most important site in the world to demonstrate one of the iconic changes that make up the record of life on Earth: the evolution of the whales. It portrays vividly their form and mode of life during their transition from land animals to a marine existence. It exceeds the values of other comparable sites in terms of the number, concentration and quality of its fossils, and their accessibility and setting in an attractive and protected landscape. It accords with key principles of the IUCN study on fossil World Heritage Sites, and represents significant values that are currently absent from the World Heritage List.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>29.3333300000</latitude><location>Faiyum Governorate</location><longitude>30.1833300000</longitude><region>Arab States</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Wadi Al-Hitan, Whale Valley, in the Western Desert of Egypt, contains invaluable fossil remains of the earliest, and now extinct, suborder of whales, Archaeoceti. These fossils represent one of the major stories of evolution: the emergence of the whale as an ocean-going mammal from a previous life as a land-based animal. This is the most important site in the world for the demonstration of this stage of evolution. It portrays vividly the form and life of these whales during their transition. The number, concentration and quality of such fossils here is unique, as is their accessibility and setting in an attractive and protected landscape. The fossils of Al-Hitan show the youngest archaeocetes, in the last stages of losing their hind limbs. Other fossil material in the site makes it possible to reconstruct the surrounding environmental and ecological conditions of the time.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Wadi Al-Hitan (Whale Valley)</site><states>Egypt</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1363</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1993</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/675</http_url><id_number>675</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_675.jpg</image_url><iso_code>sv</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>13.8275000000</latitude><location>Department of La Libertad, Canton Joya de Ceren, jurisdiction of San Juan Opico</location><longitude>-89.3691666700</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Joya de Cer&amp;eacute;n was a pre-Hispanic farming community that, like Pompeii and Herculaneum in Italy, was buried under an eruption of the Laguna Caldera volcano c. AD 600. Because of the exceptional condition of the remains, they provide an insight into the daily lives of the Central American populations who worked the land at that time.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Joya de Cerén Archaeological Site</site><states>El Salvador</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>799</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2017</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1550</http_url><id_number>1550</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1550.jpg</image_url><iso_code>er</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>15.3352777778</latitude><location></location><longitude>38.9358333333</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Located at over 2,000 m above sea level, the capital of Eritrea developed from the 1890s onwards as a military outpost for the Italian colonial power. After 1935, Asmara underwent a large scale programme of construction applying the Italian rationalist idiom of the time to governmental edifices, residential and commercial buildings, churches, mosques, synagogues, cinemas, hotels, etc. The property encompasses the area of the city that resulted from various phases of planning between 1893 and 1941, as well as the indigenous unplanned neighbourhoods of Arbate Asmera and Abbashawel. It is an exceptional example of early modernist urbanism at the beginning of the 20th century and its application in an African context.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Asmara: A Modernist African City</site><states>Eritrea</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2131</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1997</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/822</http_url><id_number>822</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_822.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ee</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee decided to inscribe this property on the basis of &lt;em&gt;criteria (ii) and (iv)&lt;/em&gt;, considering that Tallinn is an outstanding and exceptionally complete and well preserved example of a medieval northern European trading city that retains the salient features of this unique form of economic and social community to a remarkable degree.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>59.4333300000</latitude><location>County of Harju</location><longitude>24.7333333300</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The origins of Tallinn date back to the 13th century, when a castle was built there by the crusading knights of the Teutonic Order. It developed as a major centre of the Hanseatic League, and its wealth is demonstrated by the opulence of the public buildings (the churches in particular) and the domestic architecture of the merchants' houses, which have survived to a remarkable degree despite the ravages of fire and war in the intervening centuries.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic Centre (Old Town) of Tallinn</site><states>Estonia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1626</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(x)</criteria_txt><danger>Y 1996</danger><date_inscribed>1978</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/9</http_url><id_number>9</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_9.jpg</image_url><iso_code>et</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>13.1833333333</latitude><location>Gondar Region</location><longitude>38.0666666667</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Massive erosion over the years on the Ethiopian plateau has created one of the most spectacular landscapes in the world, with jagged mountain peaks, deep valleys and sharp precipices dropping some 1,500 m. The park is home to some extremely rare animals such as the Gelada baboon, the Simien fox and the Walia ibex, a goat found nowhere else in the world.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Simien National Park</site><states>Ethiopia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>12</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1980</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/10</http_url><id_number>10</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_10.jpg</image_url><iso_code>et</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>11.1000600000</latitude><location>Afar region</location><longitude>40.5793900000</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Awash valley contains one of the most important groupings of palaeontological sites on the African continent. The remains found at the site, the oldest of which date back at least 4 million years, provide evidence of human evolution which has modified our conception of the history of humankind. The most spectacular discovery came in 1974, when 52 fragments of a skeleton enabled the famous Lucy to be reconstructed.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Lower Valley of the Awash</site><states>Ethiopia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>13</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1980</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/12</http_url><id_number>12</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_12.jpg</image_url><iso_code>et</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>8.4349100000</latitude><location>Sodo woreda, Gurage zone, Southern Nation Nationalities &amp; Peoples Region</location><longitude>38.6121000000</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Tiya is among the most important of the roughly 160 archaeological sites discovered so far in the Soddo region, south of Addis Ababa. The site contains 36 monuments, including 32 carved stelae covered with symbols, most of which are difficult to decipher. They are the remains of an ancient Ethiopian culture whose age has not yet been precisely determined.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Tiya</site><states>Ethiopia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>15</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1980</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/15</http_url><id_number>15</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_15.jpg</image_url><iso_code>et</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>14.1301900000</latitude><location>Tigrai Region</location><longitude>38.7186100000</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The ruins of the ancient city of Aksum are found close to Ethiopia's northern border. They mark the location of the heart of ancient Ethiopia, when the Kingdom of Aksum was the most powerful state between the Eastern Roman Empire and Persia. The massive ruins, dating from between the 1st and the 13th century A.D., include monolithic obelisks, giant stelae, royal tombs and the ruins of ancient castles. Long after its political decline in the 10th century, Ethiopian emperors continued to be crowned in Aksum.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Aksum</site><states>Ethiopia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>18</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1980</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/17</http_url><id_number>17</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_17.jpg</image_url><iso_code>et</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>4.8000000000</latitude><location>Southern Nation Nationalities &amp; Peoples Region</location><longitude>35.9666666700</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;A prehistoric site near Lake Turkana, the lower valley of the Omo is renowned the world over. The discovery of many fossils there, especially &lt;em&gt;Homo gracilis&lt;/em&gt;, has been of fundamental importance in the study of human evolution.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Lower Valley of the Omo</site><states>Ethiopia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>20</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1978</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/18</http_url><id_number>18</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_18.jpg</image_url><iso_code>et</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>12.0293500000</latitude><location>Amhara Region</location><longitude>39.0404200000</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The 11 medieval monolithic cave churches of this 13th-century 'New Jerusalem' are situated in a mountainous region in the heart of Ethiopia near a traditional village with circular-shaped dwellings. Lalibela is a high place of Ethiopian Christianity, still today a place of pilmigrage and devotion.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Rock-Hewn Churches, Lalibela</site><states>Ethiopia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>21</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1979</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/19</http_url><id_number>19</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_19.jpg</image_url><iso_code>et</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>12.6069200000</latitude><location>Amhara Region</location><longitude>37.4661700000</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;In the 16th and 17th centuries, the fortress-city of Fasil Ghebbi was the residence of the Ethiopian emperor Fasilides and his successors. Surrounded by a 900-m-long wall, the city contains palaces, churches, monasteries and unique public and private buildings marked by Hindu and Arab influences, subsequently transformed by the Baroque style brought to Gondar by the Jesuit missionaries.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Fasil Ghebbi, Gondar Region</site><states>Ethiopia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>22</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2006</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1189</http_url><id_number>1189</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1189.jpg</image_url><iso_code>et</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>9.3088888888</latitude><location>Harari Region</location><longitude>42.1377777777</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The fortified historic town of Harar is located in the eastern part of the country on a plateau with deep gorges surrounded by deserts and savannah. The walls surrounding this sacred Muslim city were built between the 13th and 16th centuries. Harar Jugol, said to be the fourth holiest city of Islam, numbers 82 mosques, three of which date from the 10th century, and 102 shrines, but the townhouses with their exceptional interior design constitute the most spectacular part of Harar's cultural heritage. The impact of African and Islamic traditions on the development of the town's building types and urban layout make for its particular character and uniqueness.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Harar Jugol, the Fortified Historic Town</site><states>Ethiopia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1452</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2011</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1333</http_url><id_number>1333</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1333.jpg</image_url><iso_code>et</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>5.3000000000</latitude><location></location><longitude>37.4000000000</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Konso Cultural Landscape is an arid property of stone walled terraces and fortified settlements in the Konso highlands of Ethiopia. It constitutes a spectacular example of a living cultural tradition stretching back 21 generations (more than 400 years) adapted to its dry hostile environment. The landscape demonstrates the shared values, social cohesion and engineering knowledge of its communities. The site also features anthropomorphic wooden statues - grouped to represent respected members of their communities and particularly heroic events - which are an exceptional living testimony to funerary traditions that are on the verge of disappearing. Stone steles in the towns express a complex system of marking the passing of generations of leaders.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Konso Cultural Landscape</site><states>Ethiopia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1846</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2013</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1399</http_url><id_number>1399</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1399.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fj</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-17.6833777778</latitude><location></location><longitude>178.8345333333</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The town and its low line of buildings set among coconut and mango trees along the beach front was the first colonial capital of Fiji, ceded to the British in 1874. It developed from the early 19th century as a centre of commercial activity by Americans and Europeans who built warehouses, stores, port facilities, residences, and religious, educational and social institutions around the villages of the South Pacific island&amp;rsquo;s indigenous population. It is a rare example of a late colonial port town that was influenced in its development by the indigenous community which continued to outnumber the European settlers. Thus the town, an outstanding example of late 19th century Pacific port settlements, reflects the integration of local building traditions by a supreme naval power, leading to the emergence of a unique landscape.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Levuka Historical Port Town</site><states>Fiji</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1886</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1999</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/579</http_url><id_number>579</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_579.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fi</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii):&lt;/em&gt; The Sammallahdenm&amp;auml;ki cairn cemetery bears exceptional witness to the society of the Bronze Age of Scandinavia.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; The Sammallahdenm&amp;auml;ki cemetery is an outstanding example of Bronze Age funerary practices in Scandinavia.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>61.1205600000</latitude><location>Region of Satakunta, Province of Western Finland</location><longitude>21.7775000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This Bronze Age burial site features more than 30 granite burial cairns, providing a unique insight into the funerary practices and social and religious structures of northern Europe more than three millennia ago.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Bronze Age Burial Site of Sammallahdenmäki</site><states>Finland</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>686</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1991</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/583</http_url><id_number>583</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_583.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fi</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>60.1472200000</latitude><location>Helsinki Harbour, Region of Uusimaa, Province of Southern Finland</location><longitude>24.9872200000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Built in the second half of the 18th century by Sweden on a group of islands located at the entrance of Helsinki's harbour, this fortress is an especially interesting example of European military architecture of the time.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Fortress of Suomenlinna</site><states>Finland</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>690</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1994</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/584</http_url><id_number>584</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_584.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fi</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>62.2500000000</latitude><location>Petäjävesi, Region of Central Finland, Province of Western Finland</location><longitude>25.1833300000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Petäjävesi Old Church, in central Finland, was built of logs between 1763 and 1765. This Lutheran country church is a typical example of an architectural tradition that is unique to eastern Scandinavia. It combines the Renaissance conception of a centrally planned church with older forms deriving from Gothic groin vaults.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Petäjävesi Old Church</site><states>Finland</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>691</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1996</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/751</http_url><id_number>751</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_751.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fi</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee decided to inscribe the nominated property on the basis of cultural &lt;em&gt;criterion (iv)&lt;/em&gt; considering that the Groundwood and Board Mill and its associated habitation is an outstanding and remarkably well preserved example of the small-scale rural industrial settlement associated with pulp, paper, and board production that flourished in northern Europe and North America in the 19th and early 20th centuries, of which only a handful survives to the present day.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>61.0619400000</latitude><location>Municipalities of Jaala and Valkeala, Region of Kymenlaakso, Province of Southern Finland</location><longitude>26.6408300000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Verla groundwood and board mill and its associated residential area is an outstanding, remarkably well-preserved example of the small-scale rural industrial settlements associated with pulp, paper and board production that flourished in northern Europe and North America in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Only a handful of such settlements survive to the present day.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Verla Groundwood and Board Mill</site><states>Finland</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>885</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1991</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/582</http_url><id_number>582</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_582.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fi</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>61.1280600000</latitude><location>Region of Satakunta, Province of Western Finland (formerly Province of Turku-Pori)</location><longitude>21.5116700000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Situated on the Gulf of Botnia, Rauma is one of the oldest harbours in Finland. Built around a Franciscan monastery, where the mid-15th-century Holy Cross Church still stands, it is an outstanding example of an old Nordic city constructed in wood. Although ravaged by fire in the late 17th century, it has preserved its ancient vernacular architectural heritage.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Old Rauma</site><states>Finland</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1718</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1979</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/85</http_url><id_number>85</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_85.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>45.0575000000</latitude><location>Communes of Les Eyzies de Tayac, Tursac, Montignac-sur-Vézère, Saint-Leon-sur-Vézère, Marquay, Manaurie-Rouffignac and Saint-Cirq-du Bugue, Department of the Dordogne, Region of Aquitaine</location><longitude>1.1700000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Vézère valley contains 147 prehistoric sites dating from the Palaeolithic and 25 decorated caves. It is particularly interesting from an ethnological and anthropological, as well as an aesthetic point of view because of its cave paintings, especially those of the Lascaux Cave, whose discovery in 1940 was of great importance for the history of prehistoric art. The hunting scenes show some 100 animal figures, which are remarkable for their detail, rich colours and lifelike quality.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Prehistoric Sites and Decorated Caves of the Vézère Valley</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>91</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1981</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/160</http_url><id_number>160</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_160.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>48.4019444400</latitude><location>Department of Seine-et-Marne, Ile-de-France</location><longitude>2.6980555560</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Used by the kings of France from the 12th century, the medieval royal hunting lodge of Fontainebleau, standing at the heart of a vast forest in the Ile-de-France, was transformed, enlarged and embellished in the 16th century by François I, who wanted to make a 'New Rome' of it. Surrounded by an immense park, the Italianate palace combines Renaissance and French artistic traditions.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Palace and Park of Fontainebleau</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>178</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1981</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/164</http_url><id_number>164</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_164.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>43.6776388900</latitude><location></location><longitude>4.6306944440</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Arles is a good example of the adaptation of an ancient city to medieval European civilization. It has some impressive Roman monuments, of which the earliest – the arena, the Roman theatre and the cryptoporticus (subterranean galleries) – date back to the 1st century B.C. During the 4th century Arles experienced a second golden age, as attested by the baths of Constantine and the necropolis of Alyscamps. In the 11th and 12th centuries, Arles once again became one of the most attractive cities in the Mediterranean. Within the city walls, Saint-Trophime, with its cloister, is one of Provence's major Romanesque monuments.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Arles, Roman and Romanesque Monuments</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>182</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1995</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/228</http_url><id_number>228</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_228.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>43.9527777800</latitude><location>Department of Vacluse, Region of Provence-Alpes-Côte-d’Azur</location><longitude>4.8061111110</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;In the 14th century, this city in the South of France was the seat of the papacy. The Palais des Papes, an austere-looking fortress lavishly decorated by Simone Martini and Matteo Giovanetti, dominates the city, the surrounding ramparts and the remains of a 12th-century bridge over the Rhone. Beneath this outstanding example of Gothic architecture, the Petit Palais and the Romanesque Cathedral of Notre-Dame-des-Doms complete an exceptional group of monuments that testify to the leading role played by Avignon in 14th-century Christian Europe.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic Centre of Avignon: Papal Palace, Episcopal Ensemble and Avignon Bridge</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>254</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(viii)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1983</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/258</http_url><id_number>258</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_258.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>42.3251944400</latitude><location>Departments of Corse du Sud and Haute Corse, Corsica</location><longitude>8.6288333330</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The nature reserve, which is part of the Regional Natural Park of Corsica, occupies the Scandola peninsula, an impressive, porphyritic rock mass. The vegetation is an outstanding example of scrubland. Seagulls, cormorants and sea eagles can be found there. The clear waters, with their islets and inaccessible caves, host a rich marine life.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Gulf of Porto: Calanche of Piana, Gulf of Girolata, Scandola Reserve</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>288</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1997</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/345</http_url><id_number>345</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_345.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee decided to inscribe this property on the basis of &lt;em&gt;criteria (ii) and (iv)&lt;/em&gt;, considering that the historic town of Carcassonne is an excellent example of a medieval fortified town whose massive defences were constructed on walls dating from Late Antiquity. It is of exceptional importance by virtue of the restoration work carried out in the second half of the 19th century by Viollet-le-Duc, which had a profound influence on subsequent developments in conservation principles and practice.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>43.2105555600</latitude><location>Department of Aude, Languedoc-Roussillon Region</location><longitude>2.3588888890</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Since the pre-Roman period, a fortified settlement has existed on the hill where Carcassonne now stands. In its present form it is an outstanding example of a medieval fortified town, with its massive defences encircling the castle and the surrounding buildings, its streets and its fine Gothic cathedral. Carcassonne is also of exceptional importance because of the lengthy restoration campaign undertaken by Viollet-le-Duc, one of the founders of the modern science of conservation.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic Fortified City of Carcassonne</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>393</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1991</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/600</http_url><id_number>600</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_600.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>48.8583333300</latitude><location>Ile de France</location><longitude>2.2941666670</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;From the Louvre to the Eiffel Tower, from the Place de la Concorde to the Grand and Petit Palais, the evolution of Paris and its history can be seen from the River Seine. The Cathedral of Notre-Dame and the Sainte Chapelle are architectural masterpieces while Haussmann's wide squares and boulevards influenced late 19th- and 20th-century town planning the world over.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Paris, Banks of the Seine</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>710</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1991</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/601</http_url><id_number>601</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_601.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>49.2533333300</latitude><location>Department of Marne, Champagne Ardenne Region</location><longitude>4.0327777780</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The outstanding handling of new architectural techniques in the 13th century, and the harmonious marriage of sculptural decoration with architecture, has made Notre-Dame in Reims one of the masterpieces of Gothic art. The former abbey still has its beautiful 9th-century nave, in which lie the remains of Archbishop St Rémi (440–533), who instituted the Holy Anointing of the kings of France. The former archiepiscopal palace known as the Tau Palace, which played an important role in religious ceremonies, was almost entirely rebuilt in the 17th century.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Former Abbey of Saint-Rémi and Palace of Tau, Reims</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>711</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1996</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/770</http_url><id_number>770</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_770.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee decided to inscribe the nominated property on the basis of cultural &lt;em&gt;criteria (i), (ii), (iv) and (vi)&lt;/em&gt; considering that the site is of outstanding universal value being one of the greatest engineering achievements of the Modern Age, providing the model for the flowering of technology that led directly to the Industrial Revolution and the modern technological age. Additionally, it combines with its technological innovation a concern for high aesthetic architectural and landscape design that has few parallels. The Committee endorsed the inscription of this property as the Canal du Midi clearly is an exceptional example of a designed landscape&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>43.6113888900</latitude><location>Region of Midi-Pyrénées (departments of Haute-Garonne and Tarn); Region of Languedoc-Roussillon (departments of l'Aude and l'Herault)</location><longitude>1.4163888890</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This 360-km network of navigable waterways linking the Mediterranean and the Atlantic through 328 structures (locks, aqueducts, bridges, tunnels, etc.) is one of the most remarkable feats of civil engineering in modern times. Built between 1667 and 1694, it paved the way for the Industrial Revolution. The care that its creator, Pierre-Paul Riquet, took in the design and the way it blends with its surroundings turned a technical achievement into a work of art.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Canal du Midi</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>910</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1998</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/868</http_url><id_number>868</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_868.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; The Pilgrimage Route of Santiago de Compostela played a key role in religious and cultural exchange and development during the later Middle Ages, and this is admirably illustrated by the carefully selected monuments on the routes followed by pilgrims in France.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; The spiritual and physical needs of pilgrims travelling to Santiago de Compostela were met by the development of a number of specialized types of edifice, many of which originated or were further developed on the French sections.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (vi):&lt;/em&gt; The Pilgrimage Route of Santiago de Compostela bears exceptional witness to the power and influence of Christian faith among people of all classes and countries in Europe during the Middle Ages.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>45.1840555600</latitude><location>Regions of Aquitaine, Auvergne, Basse-Normandie, Bourgogne, Centre, Champagne-Ardenne, Ile-de-France, Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Midi-Pyrénées, Picardie, Poitou-Charentes, and Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur</location><longitude>0.7229444440</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Santiago de Compostela was the supreme goal for countless thousands of pious pilgrims who converged there from all over Europe throughout the Middle Ages. To reach Spain pilgrims had to pass through France, and the group of important historical monuments included in this inscription marks out the four routes by which they did so.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1019</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1998</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/872</http_url><id_number>872</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_872.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; Lyon bears exceptional testimony to the continuity of urban settlement over more than two millennia on a site of great commercial and strategic significance, where cultural traditions from many parts of Europe have come together to create a coherent and vigorous continuing community.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; By virtue of the special way in which it has developed spatially, Lyon illustrates in an exceptional way the progress and evolution of architectural design and town planning over many centuries.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>45.7672200000</latitude><location>Department of Rhône, Region of Rhône-Alpes </location><longitude>4.8333300000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The long history of Lyon, which was founded by the Romans in the 1st century B.C. as the capital of the Three Gauls and has continued to play a major role in Europe's political, cultural and economic development ever since, is vividly illustrated by its urban fabric and the many fine historic buildings from all periods.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic Site of Lyon</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1023</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2001</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/873</http_url><id_number>873</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_873.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; At the beginning of the 2nd millennium Provins was one of several towns in the territory of the Counts of Champagne that became the venues for great annual trading fairs linking northern Europe with the Mediterranean world.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; Provins preserves to a high degree the architecture and urban layout that characterize these great medieval fair towns.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>48.5597222200</latitude><location>Department of Seine-et-Marne, Ile-de-France</location><longitude>3.2988888890</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The fortified medieval town of Provins is situated in the former territory of the powerful Counts of Champagne. It bears witness to early developments in the organization of international trading fairs and the wool industry. The urban structure of Provins, which was built specifically to host the fairs and related activities, has been well preserved.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Provins, Town of Medieval Fairs</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1025</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1999</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/932</http_url><id_number>932</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_932.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii):&lt;/em&gt; The Jurisdiction of Saint-Emilion is an outstanding example of an historic vineyard landscape that has survived intact and in activity to the present day.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; The intensive cultivation of grapes for wine production in a precisely defined region and the resulting landscape is illustrated in an exceptional way by the historic Jurisdiction of Saint-Emilion.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>44.8947222200</latitude><location>Department of the Gironde, Region of Aquitaine </location><longitude>-0.1552777780</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Viticulture was introduced to this fertile region of Aquitaine by the Romans, and intensified in the Middle Ages. The Saint-Emilion area benefited from its location on the pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela and many churches, monasteries and hospices were built there from the 11th century onwards. It was granted the special status of a 'jurisdiction' during the period of English rule in the 12th century. It is an exceptional landscape devoted entirely to wine-growing, with many fine historic monuments in its towns and villages.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Jurisdiction of Saint-Emilion</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1088</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2005</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1181</http_url><id_number>1181</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1181.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii): &lt;/em&gt;The post-war reconstruction plan of Le Havre is an outstanding example and a landmark of the integration of urban planning traditions and a pioneer implementation of modern developments in architecture, technology, and town planning.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv): &lt;/em&gt;Le Havre is an outstanding post-war example of urban planning and architecture based on the unity of methodology and system of prefabrication, the systematic use of a modular grid and the innovative exploitation of the potential of concrete.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>49.4927800000</latitude><location>Department of Seine-Maritime, Region of Haute-Normandie</location><longitude>0.1075000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The city of Le Havre, on the English Channel in Normandy, was severely bombed during the Second World War. The destroyed area was rebuilt according to the plan of a team headed by Auguste Perret, from 1945 to 1964. The site forms the administrative, commercial and cultural centre of Le Havre. Le Havre is exceptional among many reconstructed cities for its unity and integrity. It combines a reflection of the earlier pattern of the town and its extant historic structures with the new ideas of town planning and construction technology. It is an outstanding post-war example of urban planning and architecture based on the unity of methodology and the use of prefabrication, the systematic utilization of a modular grid, and the innovative exploitation of the potential of concrete.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Le Havre, the City Rebuilt by Auguste Perret</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1358</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2007</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1256</http_url><id_number>1256</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1256.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>44.8388888889</latitude><location>Department of Gironde, Region of Aquitaine</location><longitude>-0.5722222222</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Port of the Moon, port city of Bordeaux in south-west France, is inscribed as an inhabited historic city, an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble, created in the age of the Enlightenment, whose values continued up to the first half of the 20th century, with more protected buildings than any other French city except Paris. It is also recognized for its historic role as a place of exchange of cultural values over more than 2,000 years, particularly since the 12th century due to commercial links with Britain and the Low Lands. Urban plans and architectural ensembles of the early 18th century onwards place the city as an outstanding example of innovative classical and neoclassical trends and give it an exceptional urban and architectural unity and coherence. Its urban form represents the success of philosophers who wanted to make towns into melting pots of humanism, universality and culture.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Bordeaux, Port of the Moon</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1433</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2008</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1283</http_url><id_number>1283</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1283.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>47.2361111111</latitude><location></location><longitude>6.0269444444</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Fortifications of Vauban consists of 12 groups of fortified buildings and sites along the western, northern and eastern borders of France. They represent the finest examples of the work of Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban (1633-1707), a military engineer of King Louis XIV. The serial property includes towns built from scratch by Vauban, citadels, urban bastion walls and bastion towers. There are also mountain forts, sea forts, a mountain battery and two mountain communication structures. This property is inscribed as bearing witness to the peak of classic fortifications, typical of western military architecture. Vauban also played a major role in the history of fortification in Europe and on other continents until the mid-19th century.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Fortifications of Vauban</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1514</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2008</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1115</http_url><id_number>1115</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1115.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-20.4119444444</latitude><location></location><longitude>164.5663888889</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This serial site comprises six marine clusters that represent the main diversity of coral reefs and associated ecosystems in the French Pacific Ocean archipelago of New Caledonia and one of the three most extensive reef systems in the world. These Lagoons are of exceptional natural beauty. They feature an exceptional diversity of coral and fish species and a continuum of habitats from mangroves to seagrasses with the world&amp;rsquo;s most diverse concentration of reef structures. The Lagoons of New Caledonia display intact ecosystems, with healthy populations of large predators, and a great number and diversity of big fish. They provide habitat to a number of emblematic or threatened marine species such as turtles, whales or dugongs whose population here is the third largest in the world.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Lagoons of New Caledonia: Reef Diversity and Associated Ecosystems</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1531</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1981</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/165</http_url><id_number>165</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_165.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>47.6394400000</latitude><location>Department of Côte d'Or, Burgundy Region</location><longitude>4.3891100000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This stark Burgundian monastery was founded by St Bernard in 1119. With its church, cloister, refectory, sleeping quarters, bakery and ironworks, it is an excellent illustration of the ideal of self-sufficiency as practised by the earliest communities of Cistercian monks.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Cistercian Abbey of Fontenay</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1565</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1985</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/344</http_url><id_number>344</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_344.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>43.9472222200</latitude><location></location><longitude>4.5352777780</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>The Pont du Gard was built shortly before the Christian era to allow the aqueduct of Nîmes (which is almost 50 km long) to cross the Gard river. The Roman architects and hydraulic engineers who designed this bridge, which stands almost 50 m high and is on three levels – the longest measuring 275 m – created a technical as well as an artistic masterpiece.</short_description><site>Pont du Gard (Roman Aqueduct)</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1566</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1981</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/163</http_url><id_number>163</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_163.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>44.1357222200</latitude><location>Department of Vacluse, Region of Provence-Alpes-Côte-d’Azur</location><longitude>4.8084166670</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Situated in the Rhone valley, the ancient theatre of Orange, with its 103-m-long facade, is one of the best preserved of all the great Roman theatres. Built between A.D. 10 and 25, the Roman arch is one of the most beautiful and interesting surviving examples of a provincial triumphal arch from the reign of Augustus. It is decorated with low reliefs commemorating the establishment of the Pax Romana.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Roman Theatre and its Surroundings and the "Triumphal Arch" of Orange</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1568</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1979</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/83</http_url><id_number>83</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_83.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>48.8050000000</latitude><location>Department of Yvelines, Ile-de-France</location><longitude>2.1194444440</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Palace of Versailles was the principal residence of the French kings from the time of Louis XIV to Louis XVI. Embellished by several generations of architects, sculptors, decorators and landscape architects, it provided Europe with a model of the ideal royal residence for over a century.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Palace and Park of Versailles</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1571</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1979</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/84</http_url><id_number>84</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_84.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>47.4663888900</latitude><location>Department of Yonne, Bourgogne Region</location><longitude>3.7483333330</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Shortly after its foundation in the 9th century, the Benedictine abbey of Vézelay acquired the relics of St Mary Magdalene and since then it has been an important place of pilgrimage. St Bernard preached the Second Crusade there in 1146 and Richard the Lion-Hearted and Philip II Augustus met there to leave for the Third Crusade in 1190. With its sculpted capitals and portal, the Madeleine of Vézelay – a 12th-century monastic church – is a masterpiece of Burgundian Romanesque art and architecture.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Vézelay, Church and Hill</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1572</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2010</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1317</http_url><id_number>1317</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1317.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-21.0994444444</latitude><location></location><longitude>55.4800000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Pitons, cirques and remparts of Reunion Island site coincides with the core zone of La Réunion National Park. The property covers more than 100,000 ha or 40 % of La Réunion, an island comprising two adjoining volcanic massifs located in the south-west of the Indian Ocean. Dominated by two towering volcanic peaks, massive walls and three cliff-rimmed cirques, the property includes a great variety of rugged terrain and impressive escarpments, forested gorges and basins creating a visually striking landscape. It is the natural habitat for a wide diversity of plants, presenting a high level of endemism. There are subtropical rainforests, cloud forests and heaths creating a remarkable and visually appealing mosaic of ecosystems and landscape features.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Pitons, cirques and remparts of Reunion Island</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1604</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1982</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/203</http_url><id_number>203</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_203.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>46.9375000000</latitude><location></location><longitude>5.8763888889</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2009</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Royal Saltworks of Arc-et-Senans, near Besançon, was built by Claude Nicolas Ledoux. Its construction, begun in 1775 during the reign of Louis XVI, was the first major achievement of industrial architecture, reflecting the ideal of progress of the Enlightenment. The vast, semicircular complex was designed to permit a rational and hierarchical organization of work and was to have been followed by the building of an ideal city, a project that was never realized.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;The Great Saltworks of Salins-les-Bains was active for at least 1200 years until stopping activity in 1962. From 1780 to 1895, its salt water travelled through 21 km of wood pipes to the Royal Saltworks of Arc-et-Senans. It was built near the immense Chaux Forest to ensure its supply of wood for fuel. The Saltworks of Salins shelters an underground gallery from the 13&lt;sup&gt;th&lt;/sup&gt; century including a hydraulic pump from the 19&lt;sup&gt;th&lt;/sup&gt; century that still functions. The boiler house demonstrates the difficulty of the saltworkers’ labour to collect the “White Gold”.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>From the Great Saltworks of Salins-les-Bains to the Royal Saltworks of Arc-et-Senans, the Production of Open-pan Salt </site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1637</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2010</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1337</http_url><id_number>1337</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1337.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>43.9283333333</latitude><location></location><longitude>2.1425000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;On the banks of the Tarn river in south-west France, the old city of Albi reflects the culmination of a medieval architectural and urban ensemble. Today the Old Bridge (Pont-Vieux), the Saint-Salvi quarter and its church are testimony to its initial development (10th -11th centuries). Following the Albigensian Crusade against the Cathar heretics (13th century) it became a powerful episcopal city. Built in a unique southern French Gothic style from local brick in characteristic red and orange colours, the lofty fortified Cathedral (late 13th century) dominates the city, demonstrating the power regained by the Roman Catholic clergy. Alongside the Cathedral is the vast bishop&amp;rsquo;s Palais de la Berbie, overlooking the river and surrounded by residential quarters that date back to the Middle Ages. The Episcopal City of Albi forms a coherent and homogeneous ensemble of monuments and quarters that has remained largely unchanged over the centuries.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Episcopal City of Albi</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1663</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1979</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/81</http_url><id_number>81</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_81.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>48.4475000000</latitude><location>Department of Eure-et-Loire, Centre Region</location><longitude>1.4872222220</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Partly built starting in 1145, and then reconstructed over a 26-year period after the fire of 1194, Chartres Cathedral marks the high point of French Gothic art. The vast nave, in pure ogival style, the porches adorned with fine sculptures from the middle of the 12th century, and the magnificent 12th- and 13th-century stained-glass windows, all in remarkable condition, combine to make it a masterpiece.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Chartres Cathedral</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1719</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2012</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1360</http_url><id_number>1360</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1360.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>50.4625000000</latitude><location></location><longitude>3.5461111111</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Remarkable as a landscape shaped over three centuries of coal extraction from the 1700s to the 1900s, the site consists of 109 separate components over 120,000&amp;nbsp;ha. It features mining pits (the oldest of which dates from 1850) and lift infrastructure, slag heaps (some of which cover 90&amp;nbsp;ha and exceed 140&amp;nbsp;m in height), coal transport infrastructure, railway stations, workers&amp;rsquo; estates and mining villages including social habitat, schools, religious buildings, health and community facilities, company premises, owners and managers&amp;rsquo; houses, town halls and more. The site bears testimony to the quest to create model workers&amp;rsquo; cities from the mid 19th century to the 1960s and further illustrates a significant period in the history of industrial Europe. It documents the living conditions of workers and the solidarity to which it gave rise.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Nord-Pas de Calais Mining Basin</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1776</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2011</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1153</http_url><id_number>1153</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1153.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>44.2202777778</latitude><location></location><longitude>3.4730555556</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This 302,319 ha property, in the southern part of central France, is a mountain landscape interspersed by deep valleys that is representative of the relationship between agro-pastoral systems and their biophysical environment, notably through drailles or drove roads. Villages and substantial stone farmhouses on deep terraces of the Causses reflect the organization of large abbeys from the 11th century. Mont Loz&amp;egrave;re, inside the property, is one of the last places where summer transhumance is still practiced in the traditional way, using the drailles.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>The Causses and the Cévennes, Mediterranean agro-pastoral Cultural Landscape</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1848</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1981</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/162</http_url><id_number>162</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_162.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>49.8950000000</latitude><location>Department of Somme, Picardie Region</location><longitude>2.3016666670</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Amiens Cathedral, in the heart of Picardy, is one of the largest 'classic' Gothic churches of the 13th century. It is notable for the coherence of its plan, the beauty of its three-tier interior elevation and the particularly fine display of sculptures on the principal facade and in the south transept.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Amiens Cathedral</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1951</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1992</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/635</http_url><id_number>635</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_635.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>47.0822222200</latitude><location>Department of Cher, Centre Region</location><longitude>2.3983333330</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Cathedral of St Etienne of Bourges, built between the late 12th and late 13th centuries, is one of the great masterpieces of Gothic art and is admired for its proportions and the unity of its design. The tympanum, sculptures and stained-glass windows are particularly striking. Apart from the beauty of the architecture, it attests to the power of Christianity in medieval France.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Bourges Cathedral</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1952</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2014</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1426</http_url><id_number>1426</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1426.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>44.3875000000</latitude><location></location><longitude>4.4161111111</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Located in a limestone plateau of the Ardèche River in southern France, the property contains the earliest-known and best-preserved figurative drawings in the world, dating back as early as the Aurignacian period (30,000–32,000 BP), making it an exceptional testimony of prehistoric art. The cave was closed off by a rock fall approximately 20,000 years BP and remained sealed until its discovery in 1994, which helped to keep it in pristine condition. Over 1,000 images have so far been inventoried on its walls, combining a variety of anthropomorphic and animal motifs. Of exceptional aesthetic quality, they demonstrate a range of techniques including the skilful use of shading, combinations of paint and engraving, anatomical precision, three-dimensionality and movement. They include several dangerous animal species difficult to observe at that time, such as mammoth, bear, cave lion, rhino, bison and auroch, as well as 4,000 inventoried remains of prehistoric fauna and a variety of human footprints.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Decorated Cave of Pont d’Arc, known as Grotte Chauvet-Pont d’Arc, Ardèche</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1974</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2015</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1425</http_url><id_number>1425</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1425.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>47.0580555556</latitude><location></location><longitude>4.8644444444</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The climates are precisely delimited vineyard parcels on the slopes of the Côte de Nuits and the Côte de Beaune south of the city of Dijon. They differ from one another due to specific natural conditions (geology and exposure) as well as vine types and have been shaped by human cultivation. Over time they came to be recognized by the wine they produce. This cultural landscape consists of two parts. Firstly, the vineyards and associated production units including villages and the town of Beaune, which together represent the commercial dimension of the production system. The second part includes the historic centre of Dijon, which embodies the political regulatory impetus that gave birth to the climats system. The site is an outstanding example of grape cultivation and wine production developed since the High Middle Ages.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>The Climats, terroirs of Burgundy</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2016</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2015</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1465</http_url><id_number>1465</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1465.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>49.0775000000</latitude><location></location><longitude>3.9461111111</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;&lt;span&gt;The property encompasses sites where the method of producing sparkling wines was developed on the principle of secondary fermentation in the bottle since the early 17&lt;/span&gt;&lt;sup&gt;th&lt;/sup&gt;&lt;span&gt; century to its early industrialization in the 19&lt;/span&gt;&lt;sup&gt;th&lt;/sup&gt;&lt;span&gt; century. The property is made up of three distinct ensembles: the historic vineyards of Hautvillers, Aÿ and Mareuil-sur-Aÿ, Saint-Nicaise Hill in Reims, and the Avenue de Champagne and Fort Chabrol in Epernay. These three components – the supply basin formed by the historic hillsides, the production sites (with their underground cellars) and the sales and distribution centres (the Champagne Houses) - illustrate the entire champagne production process. The property bears clear testimony to the development of a very specialized artisan activity that has become an agro-industrial enterprise.&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Champagne Hillsides, Houses and Cellars</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2026</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1983</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/230</http_url><id_number>230</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_230.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>46.5647200000</latitude><location>Department of Vienne, Poitou-Charentes Region</location><longitude>0.8661100000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Known as the 'Romanesque Sistine Chapel', the Abbey-Church of Saint-Savin contains many beautiful 11th- and 12th-century murals which are still in a remarkable state of preservation.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Abbey Church of Saint-Savin sur Gartempe</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2118</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2017</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1529</http_url><id_number>1529</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1529.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-16.8414000000</latitude><location></location><longitude>-151.3723777778</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>Taputapuātea on Ra’iātea Island is at the centre of the ‘Polynesian Triangle’, a vast portion of the Pacific Ocean, dotted with islands, and the last part of the globe to be settled by humans. The property includes two forested valleys, a portion of lagoon and coral reef and a strip of open ocean. At the heart of the property is the Taputapuātea &lt;em&gt;marae&lt;/em&gt; complex, a political, ceremonial and funerary centre. It is characterized by several marae, with different functions. Widespread in Polynesia, the &lt;em&gt;marae &lt;/em&gt;were places where the world of the living intersected the world of the ancestors and the gods. Taputapuātea is an exceptional testimony to 1,000 years of &lt;em&gt;mā'ohi &lt;/em&gt;civilization&lt;em&gt;.&lt;/em&gt;</short_description><site>Taputapuātea</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2155</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1988</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/495</http_url><id_number>495</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_495.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>48.5844444444</latitude><location></location><longitude>7.7488888889</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2017</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The initial property, inscribed in 1988 on the World Heritage List, was formed by the Grande-Île, the historic centre of Strasbourg, structured around the cathedral. The extension concerns the &lt;em&gt;Neustadt&lt;/em&gt;, new town, designed and built under the German administration (1871-1918). The &lt;em&gt;Neustadt&lt;/em&gt; draws the inspiration for its urban layout partially from the Haussmannian model, while adopting an architectural idiom of Germanic inspiration. This dual influence has enabled the creation of an urban space that is specific to Strasbourg, where the perspectives created around the cathedral open to a unified landscape around the rivers and canals.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Strasbourg, Grande-Île and &lt;em&gt;Neustadt&lt;/em&gt;</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2156</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1983</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/229</http_url><id_number>229</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_229.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>48.6936111100</latitude><location>Department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, Lorraine Region</location><longitude>6.1833333330</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Nancy, the temporary residence of a king without a kingdom – Stanislas Leszczynski, later to become Duke of Lorraine – is paradoxically the oldest and most typical example of a modern capital where an enlightened monarch proved to be sensitive to the needs of the public. Built between 1752 and 1756 by a brilliant team led by the architect Héré, this was a carefully conceived project that succeeded in creating a capital that not only enhanced the sovereign's prestige but was also functional.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Place Stanislas, Place de la Carrière and Place d'Alliance in Nancy</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2186</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2000</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/933</http_url><id_number>933</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_933.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (i):&lt;/em&gt; The Loire Valley is noteworthy for the quality of its architectural heritage, in its historic towns such as Blois, Chinon, Orléans, Saumur, and Tours, but in particular in its world-famous castles, such as the Château de Chambord.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; The Loire Valley is an outstanding cultural landscape along a major river which bears witness to an interchange of human values and to a harmonious development of interactions between human beings and their environment over two millennia.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; The landscape of the Loire Valley, and more particularly its many cultural monuments, illustrate to an exceptional degree the ideals of the Renaissance and the Age of the Enlightenment on western European thought and design.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>47.3988900000</latitude><location></location><longitude>0.7027800000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Loire Valley is an outstanding cultural landscape of great beauty, containing historic towns and villages, great architectural monuments (the châteaux), and cultivated lands formed by many centuries of interaction between their population and the physical environment, primarily the river Loire itself.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>The Loire Valley between Sully-sur-Loire and Chalonnes</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2250</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(viii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2018</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1434</http_url><id_number>1434</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1434.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>45.7793888889</latitude><location></location><longitude>2.9651111111</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Situated in the centre of France, the property comprises the long Limagne fault, the alignments of the Chaîne des Puys volcanoes and the inverted relief of the Montagne de la Serre. It is an emblematic segment of the West European Rift, created in the aftermath of the formation of the Alps, 35 million years ago. The geological features of the property demonstrate how the continental crust cracks, then collapses, allowing deep magma to rise and cause uplifting at the surface. The property is an exceptional illustration of continental break-up – or rifting – which is one of the five major stages of plate tectonics.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Chaîne des Puys - Limagne fault tectonic arena</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2257</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2019</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1603</http_url><id_number>1603</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1603.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-49.3803611111</latitude><location></location><longitude>69.3528055556</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The French Austral Lands and Seas comprise the largest of the rare emerged landmasses in the southern Indian Ocean: the Crozet Archipelago, the Kerguelen Islands, Saint-Paul and Amsterdam Islands as well as 60 small sub-Antarctic islands. This ‘oasis’ in the middle of the Southern Ocean covers an area of more than 67 million ha and supports one of the highest concentrations of birds and marine mammals in the world. In particular, it has the largest population of King Penguins and Yellow-nosed albatrosses in the world. The remoteness of these islands from centres of human activity makes them extremely well-preserved showcases of biological evolution and a unique terrain for scientific research.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>French Austral Lands and Seas</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2300</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1979</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/80</http_url><id_number>80</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_80.jpg</image_url><iso_code>fr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>48.6355600000</latitude><location>Department of Manche, Region of Basse-Normandie</location><longitude>-1.5105600000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Perched on a rocky islet in the midst of vast sandbanks exposed to powerful tides between Normandy and Brittany stand the 'Wonder of the West', a Gothic-style Benedictine abbey dedicated to the archangel St Michael, and the village that grew up in the shadow of its great walls. Built between the 11th and 16th centuries, the abbey is a technical and artistic &lt;em&gt;tour de force&lt;/em&gt;, having had to adapt to the problems posed by this unique natural site.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Mont-Saint-Michel and its Bay</site><states>France</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2317</unique_number></row><row><category>Mixed</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2007</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1147</http_url><id_number>1147</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1147.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ga</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-0.5000000000</latitude><location>Ogoué-Ivindo and Ogoué-Lolo Provinces</location><longitude>11.5000000000</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Ecosystem and Relict Cultural Landscape of Lopé-Okanda demonstrates an unusual interface between dense and well-conserved tropical rainforest and relict savannah environments with a great diversity of species, including endangered large mammals, and habitats. The site illustrates ecological and biological processes in terms of species and habitat adaptation to post-glacial climatic changes. It contains evidence of the successive passages of different peoples who have left extensive and comparatively well-preserved remains of habitation around hilltops, caves and shelters, evidence of iron-working and a remarkable collection of some 1,800 petroglyphs (rock carvings). The property’s collection of Neolithic and Iron Age sites, together with the rock art found there, reflects a major migration route of Bantu and other peoples from West Africa along the River Ogooué valley to the north of the dense evergreen Congo forests and to central east and southern Africa, that has shaped the development of the whole of sub-Saharan Africa.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Ecosystem and Relict Cultural Landscape of Lopé-Okanda</site><states>Gabon</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1547</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2003</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/761</http_url><id_number>761</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_761.jpg</image_url><iso_code>gm</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;Criterion iii: James Island and Related Sites on the River Gambia provide an exceptional testimony to the different facets of the African-European encounter, from the 15th to 20th centuries. The River Gambia formed the first trade route into the interior of Africa and became an early corridor for the slave trade. Criterion vi: James Island and Related Sites, the villages and the batteries, were directly and tangibly associated with the beginning and the conclusion of the slave trade, retaining its memory related to the African Diaspora.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>13.3161666700</latitude><location>Lower Niumi and Upper Niumi districts&lt;br&gt;&#xd;
&#xd;
and Banjul Municipality</location><longitude>-16.3571944400</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;James Island and Related Sites present a testimony to the main periods and facets of the encounter between Africa and Europe along the River Gambia, a continuum stretching from pre-colonial and pre-slavery times to independence. The site is particularly significant for its relation to the beginning of the slave trade and its abolition. It also documents early access to the interior of Africa.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Kunta Kinteh Island and Related Sites</site><states>Gambia (the)</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>897</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1996</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/709</http_url><id_number>709</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_709.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ge</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee decided to inscribe the nominated property on the basis of cultural criteria (iv) and (v), considering that the region of Upper Svaneti is of outstanding universal value being an exceptional landscape that has preserved to a remarkable degree its original medieval appearance, notable for the distribution, form, and architecture of its human settlements.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>42.9163900000</latitude><location>Village of Chajashi, Mestia district, Region of Samegrelo-Zemo Svateni</location><longitude>43.0113900000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Preserved by its long isolation, the Upper Svaneti region of the Caucasus is an exceptional example of mountain scenery with medieval-type villages and tower-houses. The village of Chazhashi still has more than 200 of these very unusual houses, which were used both as dwellings and as defence posts against the invaders who plagued the region.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Upper Svaneti</site><states>Georgia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>839</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)</criteria_txt><danger>Y 2010</danger><date_inscribed>1994</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/710</http_url><id_number>710</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_710.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ge</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>42.2947222222</latitude><location></location><longitude>42.7683333333</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2017</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Founded in 1106 in the west of Georgia, the Monastery of Gelati is a masterpiece of the Golden Age of medieval Georgia, a period of political strength and economic growth between the 11th and 13th centuries. It is characterized by the facades of smoothly hewn large blocks, balanced proportions and blind arches for exterior decoration. The Gelati monastery, one of the largest medieval Orthodox monasteries, was also a centre of science and education and the Academy it housed was one of the most important centres of culture in ancient Georgia.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Gelati Monastery</site><states>Georgia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2243</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger>Y 2009</danger><date_inscribed>1994</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/708</http_url><id_number>708</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_708.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ge</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>41.8438900000</latitude><location>City of Mtskheta, Region of Mtskheta-Mtianeti</location><longitude>44.7163900000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The historic churches of Mtskheta, former capital of Georgia, are outstanding examples of medieval religious architecture in the Caucasus. They show the high artistic and cultural level attained by this ancient kingdom.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historical Monuments of Mtskheta</site><states>Georgia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2251</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1981</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/168</http_url><id_number>168</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_168.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>49.3166666700</latitude><location>State of Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz)</location><longitude>8.4430555560</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Speyer Cathedral, a basilica with four towers and two domes, was founded by Conrad II in 1030 and remodelled at the end of the 11th century. It is one of the most important Romanesque monuments from the time of the Holy Roman Empire. The cathedral was the burial place of the German emperors for almost 300 years.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Speyer Cathedral</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>186</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1984</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/288</http_url><id_number>288</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_288.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>50.8250277800</latitude><location>State of North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen)</location><longitude>6.9097777780</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Set in an idyllic garden landscape, Augustusburg Castle (the sumptuous residence of the prince-archbishops of Cologne) and the Falkenlust hunting lodge (a small rural folly) are among the earliest examples of Rococo architecture in 18th-century Germany.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Castles of Augustusburg and Falkenlust at Brühl</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>322</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1986</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/367</http_url><id_number>367</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_367.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>49.7500000000</latitude><location>State of Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz)</location><longitude>6.6333333330</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Trier, which stands on the Moselle River, was a Roman colony from the 1st century AD and then a great trading centre beginning in the next century. It became one of the capitals of the Tetrarchy at the end of the 3rd century, when it was known as the &amp;lsquo;second Rome&amp;rsquo;. The number and quality of the surviving monuments are an outstanding testimony to Roman civilization.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Roman Monuments, Cathedral of St Peter and Church of Our Lady in Trier</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>420</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1990</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/532</http_url><id_number>532</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_532.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>52.4000000000</latitude><location>States of Brandenburg and Berlin</location><longitude>13.0333333300</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>1992, 1999</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;With 500 ha of parks and 150 buildings constructed between 1730 and 1916, Potsdam's complex of palaces and parks forms an artistic whole, whose eclectic nature reinforces its sense of uniqueness. It extends into the district of Berlin-Zehlendorf, with the palaces and parks lining the banks of the River Havel and Lake Glienicke. Voltaire stayed at the Sans-Souci Palace, built under Frederick II between 1745 and 1747.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Palaces and Parks of Potsdam and Berlin</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>624</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1994</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/535</http_url><id_number>535</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_535.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>51.7833300000</latitude><location>State of Saxony-Anhalt (Sachsen-Anhalt)</location><longitude>11.1500000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Quedlinburg, in the &lt;em&gt;Land&lt;/em&gt; of Sachsen-Anhalt, was a capital of the East Franconian German Empire at the time of the Saxonian-Ottonian ruling dynasty. It has been a prosperous trading town since the Middle Ages. The number and high quality of the timber-framed buildings make Quedlinburg an exceptional example of a medieval European town. The Collegiate Church of St Servatius is one of the masterpieces of Romanesque architecture.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Collegiate Church, Castle and Old Town of Quedlinburg</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>629</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1993</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/624</http_url><id_number>624</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_624.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>49.8916666700</latitude><location>District of Upper Franconia</location><longitude>10.8888888900</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;From the 10th century onwards, this town became an important link with the Slav peoples, especially those of Poland and Pomerania. During its period of greatest prosperity, from the 12th century onwards, the architecture of Bamberg strongly influenced northern Germany and Hungary. In the late 18th century it was the centre of the Enlightenment in southern Germany, with eminent philosophers and writers such as Hegel and Hoffmann living there.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Town of Bamberg</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>742</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1994</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/687</http_url><id_number>687</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_687.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>49.2444400000</latitude><location>State of Saarland</location><longitude>6.8500000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The ironworks, which cover some 6 ha, dominate the city of Völklingen. Although they have recently gone out of production, they are the only intact example, in the whole of western Europe and North America, of an integrated ironworks that was built and equipped in the 19th and 20th centuries and has remained intact.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Völklingen Ironworks</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>813</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1996</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/783</http_url><id_number>783</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_783.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee decided to inscribe the nominated property on the basis of &lt;em&gt;criteria (iv) and (vi)&lt;/em&gt;, considering that it is of outstanding universal value bearing unique testimony to the Protestant Reformation, which was one of the most significant events in the religious and political history of the world and constitutes outstanding examples of 19th century historicism. The Committee congratulated the German authorities on this nomination and considered that its symbolic value clearly justifies inscription under cultural criterion (vi).&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>51.8647200000</latitude><location>States of Saxony-Anhalt (Sachsen-Anhalt) and Thuringia (Thüringen)</location><longitude>12.6527800000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;These places in Saxony-Anhalt are all associated with the lives of Martin Luther and his fellow-reformer Melanchthon. They include Melanchthon's house in Wittenberg, the houses in Eisleben where Luther was born in 1483 and died in 1546, his room in Wittenberg, the local church and the castle church where, on 31 October 1517, Luther posted his famous '95 Theses', which launched the Reformation and a new era in the religious and political history of the Western world.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Luther Memorials in Eisleben and Wittenberg</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>926</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1998</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/846</http_url><id_number>846</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_846.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii):&lt;/em&gt; The high artistic quality of the public and private buildings and parks in and around the town testify to the remarkable cultural flowering of the Weimar Classical Period.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (vi):&lt;/em&gt; Enlightened ducal patronage attracted many of the leading writers and thinkers in Germany, such as Goethe, Schiller, and Herder to Weimar in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, making it the cultural centre of the Europe of the day.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>50.9775000000</latitude><location>State of Thuringia (Thüringen)</location><longitude>11.3286100000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;In the late 18th and early 19th centuries the small Thuringian town of Weimar witnessed a remarkable cultural flowering, attracting many writers and scholars, notably Goethe and Schiller. This development is reflected in the high quality of many of the buildings and of the parks in the surrounding area.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Classical Weimar</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>997</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1999</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/896</http_url><id_number>896</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_896.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; The Berlin Museumsinsel is a unique ensemble of museum buildings which illustrates the evolution of modern museum design over more than a century.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; The art museum is a social phenomenon that owes its origins to the Age of Enlightenment and its extension to all people to the French Revolution. The Museumsinsel is the most outstanding example of this concept given material form and a symbolic central urban setting.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>52.5197222200</latitude><location>Berlin (city-state)</location><longitude>13.3986111100</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The museum as a social phenomenon owes its origins to the Age of Enlightenment in the 18th century. The five museums on the Museumsinsel in Berlin, built between 1824 and 1930, are the realization of a visionary project and show the evolution of approaches to museum design over the course of the 20th century. Each museum was designed so as to establish an organic connection with the art it houses. The importance of the museum's collections &amp;ndash; which trace the development of civilizations throughout the ages &amp;ndash; is enhanced by the urban and architectural quality of the buildings.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Museumsinsel (Museum Island), Berlin</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1047</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1999</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/897</http_url><id_number>897</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_897.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii):&lt;/em&gt; The Castle of Wartburg is an outstanding monument of the feudal period in central Europe.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (vi):&lt;/em&gt; The Castle of Wartburg is rich in cultural associations, most notably its role as the place of exile of Martin Luther, who composed his German translation of the New Testament there. It is also a powerful symbol of German integration and unity.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>50.9667777800</latitude><location>Eisenach, State of Thuringia (Thüringen)</location><longitude>10.3070000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Wartburg Castle blends superbly into its forest surroundings and is in many ways 'the ideal castle'. Although it has retained some original sections from the feudal period, the form it acquired during the 19th-century reconstitution gives a good idea of what this fortress might have been at the height of its military and seigneurial power. It was during his exile at Wartburg Castle that Martin Luther translated the New Testament into German.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Wartburg Castle</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1048</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2000</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/974</http_url><id_number>974</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_974.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii):&lt;/em&gt; The remains of the Reichenau foundation bear outstanding witness to the religious and cultural role of a great Benedictine monastery in the early Middle Ages.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; The churches on the island of Reichenau retain remarkable elements of several stages of construction and thus offer outstanding examples of monastic architecture in Central Europe from the 9th to the 11th century.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (vi):&lt;/em&gt; The monastery of Reichenau was a highly significant artistic centre of great significance to the history of art in Europe in the 10th and 11th centuries, as is superbly illustrated by its monumental wall paintings and its illuminations.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>47.6987222200</latitude><location>District of Freiburg, State of Baden-Württemberg</location><longitude>9.0613055560</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The island of Reichenau on Lake Constance preserves the traces of the Benedictine monastery, founded in 724, which exercised remarkable spiritual, intellectual and artistic influence. The churches of St Mary and Marcus, St Peter and St Paul, and St George, mainly built between the 9th and 11th centuries, provide a panorama of early medieval monastic architecture in central Europe. Their wall paintings bear witness to impressive artistic activity.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Monastic Island of Reichenau</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1138</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2001</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/975</http_url><id_number>975</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_975.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; The Zollverein XII Coal Mine Industrial Complex is an exceptional industrial monument by virtue of the fact that its buildings are outstanding examples of the application of the design concepts of the Modern Movement in architecture in a wholly industrial context.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii):&lt;/em&gt; The technological and other structures of Zollverein XII is representative of a crucial period in the development of traditional heavy industries in Europe, when sympathetic and positive use was made of architectural designs of outstanding quality.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>51.4913888900</latitude><location>State of North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen)</location><longitude>7.0461111110</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Zollverein industrial complex in Land Nordrhein-Westfalen consists of the complete infrastructure of a historical coal-mining site, with some 20th-century buildings of outstanding architectural merit. It constitutes remarkable material evidence of the evolution and decline of an essential industry over the past 150 years.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex in Essen</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1139</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2002</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1066</http_url><id_number>1066</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1066.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; As one of the most important transport routes in Europe, the Middle Rhine Valley has for two millennia facilitated the exchange of culture between the Mediterranean region and the north.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; The Middle Rhine Valley is an outstanding organic cultural landscape, the present-day character of which is determined both by its geomorphological and geological setting and by the human interventions, such as settlements, transport infrastructure, and land-use, that it has undergone over two thousand years.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (v):&lt;/em&gt; The Middle Rhine Valley is an outstanding example of an evolving traditional way of life and means of communication in a narrow river valley. The terracing of its steep slopes in particular has shaped the landscape in many ways for more than two millennia. However, this form of land-use is under threat from the socio-economic pressures of the present day.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>50.1736111100</latitude><location>States of Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz) and Hesse (Hessen)&#xd;
</location><longitude>7.6941666670</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The 65km-stretch of the Middle Rhine Valley, with its castles, historic towns and vineyards, graphically illustrates the long history of human involvement with a dramatic and varied natural landscape. It is intimately associated with history and legend and for centuries has exercised a powerful influence on writers, artists and composers.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Upper Middle Rhine Valley</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1243</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2002</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1067</http_url><id_number>1067</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1067.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; Wismar and Stralsund, leading centres of the Wendish section of the Hanseatic League from the 13th to 15th centuries and major administrative and defence centres in the Swedish kingdom in the 17th and 18th centuries, contributed to the development and diffusion of brick construction techniques and building types, characteristic features of Hanseatic towns in the Baltic region, as well as the development of defence systems in the Swedish period.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; Stralsund and Wismar have crucial importance in the development of the building techniques and urban form that became typical of the Hanseatic trading towns, well documented in the major parish churches, the town hall of Stralsund, and the commercial building types, such as the Dielenhaus.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>54.3025000000</latitude><location>State of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern)</location><longitude>13.0852777800</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The medieval towns of Wismar and Stralsund, on the Baltic coast of northern Germany, were major trading centres of the Hanseatic League in the 14th and 15th centuries. In the 17th and 18th centuries they became Swedish administrative and defensive centres for the German territories. They contributed to the development of the characteristic building types and techniques of Brick Gothic in the Baltic region, as exemplified in several important brick cathedrals, the Town Hall of Stralsund, and the series of houses for residential, commercial and crafts use, representing its evolution over several centuries.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic Centres of Stralsund and Wismar</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1244</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2004</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1087</http_url><id_number>1087</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1087.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii):&lt;/em&gt; the Bremen Town Hall and Roland bear an exceptional testimony to the civic autonomy and sovereignty, as these developed in the Holy Roman Empire.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; The Bremen Town Hall and Roland are an outstanding ensemble representing civic autonomy and market freedom. The town hall represents the medieval Saalgeschossbau-type of hall construction, as well as being an outstanding example of the so-called Weser Renaissance in Northern Germany. The Bremen Roland is the most representative and one of the oldest of Roland statues erected as a symbol of market rights and freedom.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (vi):&lt;/em&gt; the ensemble of the town hall and Roland of Bremen with its symbolism is directly associated with the development of the ideas of civic autonomy and market freedom in the Holy Roman Empire. The Bremen Roland is referred to a historical figure, paladin of Charlemagne, who became the source for the French &amp;lsquo;chanson de geste&amp;rsquo; and other medieval and Renaissance epic poetry.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>53.0759722200</latitude><location>Bremen (city-state)</location><longitude>8.8074722220</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Town Hall and the statue of Roland on the marketplace of Bremen in north-west Germany are outstanding representations of civic autonomy and sovereignty, as these developed in the Holy Roman Empire in Europe. The old town hall was built in the Gothic style in the early 15th century, after Bremen joined the Hanseatic League. The building was renovated in the so-called Weser Renaissance style in the early 17th century. A new town hall was built next to the old one in the early 20th century as part of an ensemble that survived bombardment during the Second World War. The statue stands 5.5 m tall and dates back to 1404.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Town Hall and Roland on the Marketplace of Bremen</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1265</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2006</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1155</http_url><id_number>1155</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1155.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>49.0205555600</latitude><location>Bavaria</location><longitude>12.0991666700</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Located on the Danube River in Bavaria, this medieval town contains many buildings of exceptional quality that testify to its history as a trading centre and to its influence on the region from the 9th century. A notable number of historic structures span some two millennia and include ancient Roman, Romanesque and Gothic buildings. Regensburg&amp;rsquo;s 11th- to 13th-century architecture &amp;ndash; including the market, city hall and cathedral &amp;ndash; still defines the character of the town marked by tall buildings, dark and narrow lanes, and strong fortifications. The buildings include medieval patrician houses and towers, a large number of churches and monastic ensembles as well as the 12th-century Old Bridge. The town is also remarkable for the vestiges testifing to its rich history as one of the centres of the Holy Roman Empire that turned to Protestantism.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Old town of Regensburg with Stadtamhof</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1335</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2008</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1239</http_url><id_number>1239</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1239.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>52.4483333333</latitude><location></location><longitude>13.4500000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Berlin Modernism Housing Estates. The property consists of six housing estates that testify to innovative housing policies from 1910 to 1933, especially during the Weimar Republic, when the city of Berlin was particularly progressive socially, politically and culturally. The property is an outstanding example of the building reform movement that contributed to improving housing and living conditions for people with low incomes through novel approaches to town planning, architecture and garden design. The estates also provide exceptional examples of new urban and architectural typologies, featuring fresh design solutions, as well as technical and aesthetic innovations. Bruno Taut, Martin Wagner and Walter Gropius were among the leading architects of these projects which exercised considerable influence on the development of housing around the world.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Berlin Modernism Housing Estates</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1416</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1992</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/623</http_url><id_number>623</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_623.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>51.8200000000</latitude><location></location><longitude>10.3400000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2010</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Upper Harz mining water management system, which lies south of the Rammelsberg mines and the town of Goslar, has been developed over a period of some 800 years to assist in the process of extracting ore for the production of non-ferrous metals. Its construction was first undertaken in the Middle Ages by Cistercian monks, and it was then developed on a vast scale from the end of the 16th century until the 19th century. It is made up of an extremely complex but perfectly coherent system of artificial ponds, small channels, tunnels and underground drains. It enabled the development of water power for use in mining and metallurgical processes. It is a major site for mining innovation in the western world.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Mines of Rammelsberg, Historic Town of Goslar and Upper Harz Water Management System</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1576</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1985</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/187</http_url><id_number>187</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_187.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>52.1527800000</latitude><location>District of Hanover, State of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen)</location><longitude>9.9438900000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;St Michael's Church was built between 1010 and 1020 on a symmetrical plan with two apses that was characteristic of Ottonian Romanesque art in Old Saxony. Its interior, in particular the wooden ceiling and painted stucco-work, its famous bronze doors and the Bernward bronze column, are &amp;ndash; together with the treasures of St Mary's Cathedral &amp;ndash; of exceptional interest as examples of the Romanesque churches of the Holy Roman Empire.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>St Mary's Cathedral and St Michael's Church at Hildesheim</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1627</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger>P 2004-2006</danger><date_inscribed>1996</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/292</http_url><id_number>292</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_292.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee decided to inscribe the nominated property on the basis of cultural &lt;em&gt;criteria (i), (ii) and (iv)&lt;/em&gt; considering that the monument is of outstanding universal value being an exceptional work of human creative genius, constructed over more than six centuries and a powerful testimony to the strength and persistence of Christian belief in medieval and modern Europe.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>50.9411111100</latitude><location>State of North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen)</location><longitude>6.9572222220</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Begun in 1248, the construction of this Gothic masterpiece took place in several stages and was not completed until 1880. Over seven centuries, successive builders were inspired by the same faith and a spirit of absolute fidelity to the original plans. Apart from its exceptional intrinsic value and the artistic masterpieces it contains, Cologne Cathedral testifies to the enduring strength of European Christianity.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Cologne Cathedral</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1628</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1987</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/272</http_url><id_number>272</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_272.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>53.8666700000</latitude><location>State of Schleswig-Holstein</location><longitude>10.6916700000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;L&amp;uuml;beck &amp;ndash; the former capital and Queen City of the Hanseatic League &amp;ndash; was founded in the 12th century and prospered until the 16th century as the major trading centre for northern Europe. It has remained a centre for maritime commerce to this day, particularly with the Nordic countries. Despite the damage it suffered during the Second World War, the basic structure of the old city, consisting mainly of 15th- and 16th-century patrician residences, public monuments (the famous Holstentor brick gate), churches and salt storehouses, remains unaltered.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Hanseatic City of Lübeck</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1706</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(viii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1995</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/720</http_url><id_number>720</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_720.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>49.9166700000</latitude><location>District of Darmstadt-Dieburg, State of Hesse (Hessen)</location><longitude>8.7538900000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Messel Pit is the richest site in the world for understanding the living environment of the Eocene, between 57 million and 36 million years ago. In particular, it provides unique information about the early stages of the evolution of mammals and includes exceptionally well-preserved mammal fossils, ranging from fully articulated skeletons to the contents of stomachs of animals of this period.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Messel Pit Fossil Site</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1733</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1981</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/169</http_url><id_number>169</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_169.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>49.7927800000</latitude><location>District of Lower Franconia, State of Bavaria (Bayern)</location><longitude>9.9388900000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This magnificent Baroque palace – one of the largest and most beautiful in Germany and surrounded by wonderful gardens – was created under the patronage of the prince-bishops Lothar Franz and Friedrich Carl von Schönborn. It was built and decorated in the 18th century by an international team of architects, painters (including Tiepolo), sculptors and stucco-workers, led by Balthasar Neumann.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Würzburg Residence with the Court Gardens and Residence Square</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1735</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2011</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1368</http_url><id_number>1368</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1368.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>51.9836111111</latitude><location></location><longitude>9.8111111111</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Fagus Factory in Alfeld is a 10-building complex - began around 1910 to the design of Walter Gropius, which is a landmark in the development of modern architecture and industrial design. Serving all stages of manufacture, storage and dispatch of lasts used by the shoe industry, the complex, which is still operational today, is situated in Alfeld an der Leine in Lower Saxony. With its groundbreaking vast expanses of glass panels and functionalist aesthetics, the complex foreshadowed the work of the Bauhaus school and is a landmark in the development of architecture in Europe and North America.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Fagus Factory in Alfeld</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1778</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2012</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1379</http_url><id_number>1379</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1379.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;It is today the most important and best preserved example of court opera house architecture and of the Baroque opera culture. The theatre is a masterwork of Baroque court theatre architecture by Giuseppe Galli Bibiena in terms of its tiered loge form and acoustic, decorative and iconological properties. It marks a specific point in the development of opera houses, being a court opera house located not within a palace but as an urban element in the public space, foreshadowing the great public opera houses of the 19th century.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>49.9444444444</latitude><location></location><longitude>11.5786111111</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;A masterpiece of Baroque theatre architecture, built between 1745 and 1750, the Opera House is the only entirely preserved example of its type where an audience of 500 can experience Baroque court opera culture and acoustics authentically, as its auditorium retains its original materials, i.e. wood and canvas. Commissioned by Margravine Wilhelmine, wife of Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg&amp;ndash;Bayreuth, it was designed by the renowned theatre architect Giuseppe Galli Bibiena. As a court opera house in a public space, it foreshadowed the large public theatres of the 19th century. The highly decorated theatre&amp;rsquo;s tiered loge structure of wood with illusionistic painted canvas represents the ephemeral ceremonial architectural tradition that was employed in pageants and celebrations for princely self-representation.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Margravial Opera House Bayreuth</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1799</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1983</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/271</http_url><id_number>271</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_271.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>47.6812777800</latitude><location>Town of Steingaden, District of Weilheim-Schongau, Region of Upper Bavaria, State of Bavaria (Bayern)</location><longitude>10.9001388900</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Miraculously preserved in the beautiful setting of an Alpine valley, the Church of Wies (1745&amp;ndash;54), the work of architect Dominikus Zimmermann, is a masterpiece of Bavarian Rococo &amp;ndash; exuberant, colourful and joyful.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Pilgrimage Church of Wies</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1864</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1991</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/515</http_url><id_number>515</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_515.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>49.6536900000</latitude><location>District of Bergstrasse, State of Hesse (Hessen)</location><longitude>8.5685800000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The abbey, together with its monumental entrance, the famous 'Torhall', are rare architectural vestiges of the Carolingian era. The sculptures and paintings from this period are still in remarkably good condition.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Abbey and Altenmünster of Lorsch</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1865</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2013</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1413</http_url><id_number>1413</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1413.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>51.3158333333</latitude><location></location><longitude>9.3930555556</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Descending a long hill dominated by a giant statue of Hercules, the monumental water displays of Wilhelmsh&amp;ouml;he&amp;nbsp;were begun by Landgrave Carl of Hesse-Kassel in 1689 around an east-west axis and were developed further into the 19th century. Reservoirs and channels behind the Hercules Monument supply water to a complex system of hydro-pneumatic devices that supply the site&amp;rsquo;s large Baroque water theatre, grotto, fountains and 350-metre long Grand Cascade. Beyond this, channels and waterways wind across the axis, feeding a series of dramatic waterfalls and wild rapids, the geyser-like Grand Fountain which leaps 50m high, the lake and secluded ponds that enliven the Romantic garden created in the 18th century by Carl&amp;rsquo;s great-grandson, Elector Wilhelm I. The great size of the park and its waterworks along with the towering Hercules statue constitute an expression of the ideals of absolutist Monarchy while the ensemble is a remarkable testimony to the aesthetics of the Baroque and Romantic periods.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1875</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1978</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/3</http_url><id_number>3</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_3.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>50.7744444400</latitude><location>State of North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen)</location><longitude>6.0844444440</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Construction of this palatine chapel, with its octagonal basilica and cupola, began c. 790–800 under the Emperor Charlemagne. Originally inspired by the churches of the Eastern part of the Holy Roman Empire, it was splendidly enlarged in the Middle Ages.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Aachen Cathedral </site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1953</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2014</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1447</http_url><id_number>1447</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1447.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>51.7782777778</latitude><location></location><longitude>9.4102500000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The site is located along the Weser River on the outskirts of Höxter where the Carolingian Westwork and Civitas Corvey were erected between AD 822 and 885 in a largely preserved rural setting. The Westwork is the only standing structure that dates back to the Carolingian era, while the original imperial abbey complex is preserved as archaeological remains that are only partially excavated. The Westwork of Corvey uniquely illustrates one of the most important Carolingian architectural expressions. It is a genuine creation of this period, and its architectural articulation and decoration clearly illustrate the role played within the Frankish empire by imperial monasteries in securing territorial control and administration, as well as the propagation of Christianity and the Carolingian cultural and political order throughout Europe.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Carolingian Westwork and Civitas Corvey</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1990</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2015</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1467</http_url><id_number>1467</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1467.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>53.5455555556</latitude><location></location><longitude>9.9994444444</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Speicherstadt and the adjacent Kontorhaus district are two densely built urban areas in the centre of the port city of Hamburg. Speicherstadt, originally developed on a group of narrow islands in the Elbe River between 1885 and 1927, was partly rebuilt from 1949 to 1967. It is one of the largest coherent historic ensembles of port warehouses in the world (300,000 m&lt;sup&gt;2&lt;/sup&gt;). It includes 15 very large warehouse blocks as well as six ancillary buildings and a connecting network of short canals. Adjacent to the modernist Chilehaus office building, the Kontorhaus district is an area of over five hectares featuring six very large office complexes built from the 1920s to the 1940s to house port-related businesses. The complex exemplifies the effects of the rapid growth in international trade in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Speicherstadt and Kontorhaus District with Chilehaus</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2028</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2017</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1527</http_url><id_number>1527</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1527.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>48.3877777778</latitude><location></location><longitude>9.7655555556</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Modern humans first arrived in Europe 43,000 years ago during the last ice age. One of the areas where they took up residence was the Swabian Jura in southern Germany. Excavated from the 1860s, six caves have revealed items dating from 43,000 to 33,000 years ago. Among them are carved figurines of animals (including cave lions, mammoths, horses and bovids), musical instruments and items of personal adornment. Other figurines depict creatures that are half animal, half human and there is one statuette of a woman. These archaeological sites feature some of the oldest figurative art worldwide and help shed light on the origins of human artistic development.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Caves and Ice Age Art in the Swabian Jura</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2157</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1996</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/729</http_url><id_number>729</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_729.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>50.9747777778</latitude><location></location><longitude>11.3295000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2017</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Between 1919 and 1933 the Bauhaus movement revolutionized architectural and aesthetic thinking and practice in the 20th century. The Bauhaus buildings in Weimar, Dessau and Bernau are fundamental representatives of Classical Modernism, directed towards a radical renewal of architecture and design. This property, which was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1996, originally comprised buildings located in Weimar (Former Art School, the Applied Art School and the Haus Am Horn) and Dessau (Bauhaus Building, the group of seven Masters' Houses). The 2017 extension includes the Houses with Balcony Access in Dessau and the ADGB Trade Union School in Bernau as important contributions to the Bauhaus ideas of austere design, functionalism and social reform.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar, Dessau and Bernau</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2158</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2018</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1553</http_url><id_number>1553</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1553.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>54.4619444444</latitude><location></location><longitude>9.4541111111</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The archaeological site of Hedeby consists of the remains of an emporium – or trading town – containing traces of roads, buildings, cemeteries and a harbour dating back to the 1st and early 2nd millennia CE. It is enclosed by part of the Danevirke, a line of fortification crossing the Schleswig isthmus, which separates the Jutland Peninsula from the rest of the European mainland. Because of its unique situation between the Frankish Empire in the South and the Danish Kingdom in the North, Hedeby became a trading hub between continental Europe and Scandinavia and between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Because of its rich and well preserved archaeological material, it has become a key site for the interpretation of economic, social and historical developments in Europe during the Viking age.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Archaeological Border complex of Hedeby and the Danevirke</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2206</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2019</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1580</http_url><id_number>1580</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1580.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>48.3654722222</latitude><location></location><longitude>10.9020000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The water management system of the city of Augsburg has evolved in successive phases from the 14th century to the present day. It includes a network of canals, water towers dating from the 15th to 17th centuries, which housed pumping machinery, a water-cooled butchers’ hall, a system of three monumental fountains and hydroelectric power stations, which continue to provide sustainable energy today. The technological innovations generated by this water management system have helped establish Augsburg as a pioneer in hydraulic engineering.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Water Management System of Augsburg</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2266</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2018</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1470</http_url><id_number>1470</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1470.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>51.1548055556</latitude><location></location><longitude>11.8040000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Located in the eastern part of the Thuringian Basin, the Cathedral of Naumburg, whose construction began in 1028, is an outstanding testimony to medieval art and architecture. Its Romanesque structure, flanked by two Gothic choirs, demonstrates the stylistic transition from late Romanesque to early Gothic. The west choir, dating to the first half of the 13th century, reflects changes in religious practice and the appearance of science and nature in the figurative arts. The choir and life-size sculptures of the founders of the Cathedral are masterpieces of the workshop known as the ‘Naumburg Master’.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Naumburg Cathedral</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2288</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2000</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/534</http_url><id_number>534</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_534.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; The Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz is an outstanding example of the application of the philosophical principles of the Age of the Enlightenment to the design of a landscape that integrates art, education, and economy in a harmonious whole.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; The 18th century was a seminal period for landscape design, of which the Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz is an exceptional and wide-ranging illustration.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>51.8425000000</latitude><location>State of Saxony-Anhalt (Sachsen-Anhalt)</location><longitude>12.4208300000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz is an exceptional example of landscape design and planning of the Age of the Enlightenment, the 18th century. Its diverse components - outstanding buildings, landscaped parks and gardens in the English style, and subtly modified expanses of agricultural land - serve aesthetic, educational, and economic purposes in an exemplary manner.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2356</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1993</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/546</http_url><id_number>546</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_546.jpg</image_url><iso_code>de</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>49.0008300000</latitude><location>District of Enz, State of Baden-Württemberg</location><longitude>8.8130600000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Founded in 1147, the Cistercian Maulbronn Monastery is considered the most complete and best-preserved medieval monastic complex north of the Alps. Surrounded by fortified walls, the main buildings were constructed between the 12th and 16th centuries. The monastery's church, mainly in Transitional Gothic style, had a major influence in the spread of Gothic architecture over much of northern and central Europe. The water-management system at Maulbronn, with its elaborate network of drains, irrigation canals and reservoirs, is of exceptional interest.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Maulbronn Monastery Complex</site><states>Germany</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2357</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1979</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/34</http_url><id_number>34</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_34.jpg</image_url><iso_code>gh</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>5.3910300000</latitude><location>Volta, Greater Accra, Central and Western Regions</location><longitude>-0.4936100000</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The remains of fortified trading-posts, erected between 1482 and 1786, can still be seen along the coast of Ghana between Keta and Beyin. They were links in the trade routes established by the Portuguese in many areas of the world during their era of great maritime exploration.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Forts and Castles, Volta, Greater Accra, Central and Western Regions</site><states>Ghana</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>38</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1980</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/35</http_url><id_number>35</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_35.jpg</image_url><iso_code>gh</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>6.4011111111</latitude><location>Asante Region</location><longitude>-1.6258333333</longitude><region>Africa</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;To the north-east of Kumasi, these are the last material remains of the great Asante civilization, which reached its high point in the 18th century. Since the dwellings are made of earth, wood and straw, they are vulnerable to the onslaught of time and weather.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Asante Traditional Buildings</site><states>Ghana</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>39</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1986</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/392</http_url><id_number>392</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_392.jpg</image_url><iso_code>gr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>37.4349800000</latitude><location>Prefectures of Messenia, Arcadia, and Ilia in the Western Peloponnese</location><longitude>21.8969400000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This famous temple to the god of healing and the sun was built towards the middle of the 5th century B.C. in the lonely heights of the Arcadian mountains. The temple, which has the oldest Corinthian capital yet found, combines the Archaic style and the serenity of the Doric style with some daring architectural features.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae</site><states>Greece</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>452</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1987</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/393</http_url><id_number>393</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_393.jpg</image_url><iso_code>gr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>38.4814900000</latitude><location>Prefecture of Phokis, Region of Central Greece</location><longitude>22.4961700000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The pan-Hellenic sanctuary of Delphi, where the oracle of Apollo spoke, was the site of the omphalos, the 'navel of the world'. Blending harmoniously with the superb landscape and charged with sacred meaning, Delphi in the 6th century B.C. was indeed the religious centre and symbol of unity of the ancient Greek world.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Archaeological Site of Delphi</site><states>Greece</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>453</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1987</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/404</http_url><id_number>404</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_404.jpg</image_url><iso_code>gr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>37.9708700000</latitude><location>Prefecture and Region of Attica</location><longitude>23.7261800000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Acropolis of Athens and its monuments are universal symbols of the classical spirit and civilization and form the greatest architectural and artistic complex bequeathed by Greek Antiquity to the world. In the second half of the fifth century bc, Athens, following the victory against the Persians and the establishment of democracy, took a leading position amongst the other city-states of the ancient world. In the age that followed, as thought and art flourished, an exceptional group of artists put into effect the ambitious plans of Athenian statesman Pericles and, under the inspired guidance of the sculptor Pheidias, transformed the rocky hill into a unique monument of thought and the arts. The most important monuments were built during that time: the Parthenon, built by Ictinus, the Erechtheon, the Propylaea, the monumental entrance to the Acropolis, designed by Mnesicles and the small temple Athena Nike.&amp;nbsp;&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Acropolis, Athens</site><states>Greece</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>467</unique_number></row><row><category>Mixed</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iv)(v)(vi)(vii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1988</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/454</http_url><id_number>454</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_454.jpg</image_url><iso_code>gr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>40.2666700000</latitude><location>Autonomous region of Mount Athos</location><longitude>24.2166700000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;An Orthodox spiritual centre since 1054, Mount Athos has enjoyed an autonomous statute since Byzantine times. The 'Holy Mountain', which is forbidden to women and children, is also a recognized artistic site. The layout of the monasteries (about 20 of which are presently inhabited by some 1,400 monks) had an influence as far afield as Russia, and its school of painting influenced the history of Orthodox art.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Mount Athos</site><states>Greece</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>526</unique_number></row><row><category>Mixed</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iv)(v)(vii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1988</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/455</http_url><id_number>455</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_455.jpg</image_url><iso_code>gr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>39.7166700000</latitude><location>Prefecture of Trikala, Region of Thessaly</location><longitude>21.6333300000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;In a region of almost inaccessible sandstone peaks, monks settled on these 'columns of the sky' from the 11th century onwards. Twenty-four of these monasteries were built, despite incredible difficulties, at the time of the great revival of the eremetic ideal in the 15th century. Their 16th-century frescoes mark a key stage in the development of post-Byzantine painting.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Meteora</site><states>Greece</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>527</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1988</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/456</http_url><id_number>456</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_456.jpg</image_url><iso_code>gr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>40.6383300000</latitude><location>Prefecture of Thessaloniki, Region of Central Macedonia</location><longitude>22.9650000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Founded in 315 B.C., the provincial capital and sea port of Thessalonika was one of the first bases for the spread of Christianity. Among its Christian monuments are fine churches, some built on the Greek cross plan and others on the three-nave basilica plan. Constructed over a long period, from the 4th to the 15th century, they constitute a diachronic typological series, which had considerable influence in the Byzantine world. The mosaics of the rotunda, St Demetrius and St David are among the great masterpieces of early Christian art.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Paleochristian and Byzantine Monuments of Thessalonika</site><states>Greece</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>528</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1988</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/491</http_url><id_number>491</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_491.jpg</image_url><iso_code>gr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>37.6666666700</latitude><location>Prefecture of Argolis, Region of the Peloponnesos</location><longitude>23.1166666700</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;In a small valley in the Peloponnesus, the shrine of Asklepios, the god of medicine, developed out of a much earlier cult of Apollo (Maleatas), during the 6th century BC at the latest, as the official cult of the city state of Epidaurus. Its principal monuments, particularly the temple of Asklepios, the Tholos and the Theatre - considered one of the purest masterpieces of Greek architecture &amp;ndash; date from the 4th century. The vast site, with its temples and hospital buildings devoted to its healing gods, provides valuable insight into the healing cults of Greek and Roman times.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Sanctuary of Asklepios at Epidaurus</site><states>Greece</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>571</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1988</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/493</http_url><id_number>493</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_493.jpg</image_url><iso_code>gr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>36.4472200000</latitude><location>Prefecture of Dodecanese, Region of the South Aegean</location><longitude>28.2277800000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Order of St John of Jerusalem occupied Rhodes from 1309 to 1523 and set about transforming the city into a stronghold. It subsequently came under Turkish and Italian rule. With the Palace of the Grand Masters, the Great Hospital and the Street of the Knights, the Upper Town is one of the most beautiful urban ensembles of the Gothic period. In the Lower Town, Gothic architecture coexists with mosques, public baths and other buildings dating from the Ottoman period.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Medieval City of Rhodes</site><states>Greece</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>574</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1989</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/511</http_url><id_number>511</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_511.jpg</image_url><iso_code>gr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>37.0805600000</latitude><location>Prefecture of Laconia, Region of the Peloponnesos</location><longitude>22.3666700000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Mystras, the 'wonder of the Morea', was built as an amphitheatre around the fortress erected in 1249 by the prince of Achaia, William of Villehardouin. Reconquered by the Byzantines, then occupied by the Turks and the Venetians, the city was abandoned in 1832, leaving only the breathtaking medieval ruins, standing in a beautiful landscape.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Archaeological Site of Mystras</site><states>Greece</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>595</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1989</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/517</http_url><id_number>517</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_517.jpg</image_url><iso_code>gr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>37.6500000000</latitude><location>Prefecture of Ilia, Region of West Greece in the Western Peloponnese</location><longitude>21.6666666700</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The site of Olympia, in a valley in the Peloponnesus, has been inhabited since prehistoric times. In the 10th century B.C., Olympia became a centre for the worship of Zeus. The Altis &amp;ndash; the sanctuary to the gods &amp;ndash; has one of the highest concentrations of masterpieces from the ancient Greek world. In addition to temples, there are the remains of all the sports structures erected for the Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia every four years beginning in 776 B.C.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Archaeological Site of Olympia</site><states>Greece</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>603</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1990</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/530</http_url><id_number>530</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_530.jpg</image_url><iso_code>gr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>37.4000000000</latitude><location>Prefecture of Cyclades, Region of the South Aegean</location><longitude>25.2666700000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;According to Greek mythology, Apollo was born on this tiny island in the Cyclades archipelago. Apollo's sanctuary attracted pilgrims from all over Greece and Delos was a prosperous trading port. The island bears traces of the succeeding civilizations in the Aegean world, from the 3rd millennium B.C. to the palaeochristian era. The archaeological site is exceptionally extensive and rich and conveys the image of a great cosmopolitan Mediterranean port.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Delos</site><states>Greece</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>620</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1990</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/537</http_url><id_number>537</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_537.jpg</image_url><iso_code>gr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>38.4000000000</latitude><location>Regions of Attica, Central Greece, North Aegean</location><longitude>22.7500000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Although geographically distant from each other, these three monasteries (the first is in Attica, near Athens, the second in Phocida near Delphi, and the third on an island in the Aegean Sea, near Asia Minor) belong to the same typological series and share the same aesthetic characteristics. The churches are built on a cross-in-square plan with a large dome supported by squinches defining an octagonal space. In the 11th and 12th centuries they were decorated with superb marble works as well as mosaics on a gold background, all characteristic of the 'second golden age of Byzantine art'.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Monasteries of Daphni, Hosios Loukas and Nea Moni of Chios</site><states>Greece</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>632</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1992</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/595</http_url><id_number>595</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_595.jpg</image_url><iso_code>gr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>37.6908300000</latitude><location>Prefecture of Samos, Region of the North Aegean</location><longitude>26.9433300000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Many civilizations have inhabited this small Aegean island, near Asia Minor, since the 3rd millennium B.C. The remains of Pythagoreion, an ancient fortified port with Greek and Roman monuments and a spectacular tunnel-aqueduct, as well as the Heraion, temple of the Samian Hera, can still be seen.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Pythagoreion and Heraion of Samos</site><states>Greece</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>703</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1996</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/780</http_url><id_number>780</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_780.jpg</image_url><iso_code>gr</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee decided to inscribe the nominated property on the basis of cultural criteria (i) and (iii) considering that the site is of outstanding universal value representing an exceptional testimony to a significant development in European civilization, at the transition from classical city-state to the imperial structure of the Hellenistic and Roman periods. This is vividly demonstrated in particular by the remarkable series of royal tombs and their rich contents. The Committee decided to add to the proposed criteria cultural criterion (i), since the paintings found at Vergina are of extraordinarily high quality and historical importance.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>40.4713900000</latitude><location>Prefecture of Imathia, Region of Central Macedonia</location><longitude>22.3183300000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The city of Aigai, the ancient first capital of the Kingdom of Macedonia, was discovered in the 19th century near Vergina, in northern Greece. The most important remains are the monumental palace, lavishly decorated with mosaics and painted stuccoes, and the burial ground with more than 300 tumuli, some of which date from the 11th century B.C. One of the royal tombs in the Great Tumulus is identified as that of Philip II, who conquered all the Greek cities, paving the way for his son Alexander and the expansion of the Hellenistic world.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Archaeological Site of Aigai (modern name Vergina)</site><states>Greece</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>923</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1999</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/941</http_url><id_number>941</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_941.jpg</image_url><iso_code>gr</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (i):&lt;/em&gt; The architecture and design of Mycenae and Tiryns, such as the Lion Gate and the Treasury of Atreus at Mycenae and the walls of Tiryns, are outstanding examples of human creative genius.&lt;/p&gt;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; The Mycenaean civilization, as exemplified by Mycenae and Tiryns, had a profound effect on the development of classical Greek architecture and urban design, and consequently also on contemporary cultural forms.&lt;/p&gt;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criteria (iii) and (iv):&lt;/em&gt; Mycenae and Tiryns represent the apogee of the Mycenaean civilization, which laid the foundations for the evolution of later European cultures.&lt;/p&gt;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (vi):&lt;/em&gt; Mycenae and Tiryns are indissolubly linked with the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey, the influence of which upon European literature and the arts has been profound for more than three millennia.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>37.7333333300</latitude><location>Prefecture of Argolis, Region of the Peloponnesos</location><longitude>22.7500000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The archaeological sites of Mycenae and Tiryns are the imposing ruins of the two greatest cities of the Mycenaean civilization, which dominated the eastern Mediterranean world from the 15th to the 12th century B.C. and played a vital role in the development of classical Greek culture. These two cities are indissolubly linked to the Homeric epics, the &lt;em&gt;Iliad&lt;/em&gt; and the &lt;em&gt;Odyssey&lt;/em&gt; , which have influenced European art and literature for more than three millennia.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Archaeological Sites of Mycenae and Tiryns</site><states>Greece</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1097</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1999</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/942</http_url><id_number>942</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_942.jpg</image_url><iso_code>gr</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii):&lt;/em&gt; The town of Chor&amp;aacute; on the island of P&amp;aacute;tmos is one of the few settlements in Greece that have evolved uninterruptedly since the 12th century. There are few other places in the world where religious ceremonies that date back to the early Christian times are still being practised unchanged.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt; Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; The Monastery of Hagios Ioannis Theologos (Saint John the Theologian) and the Cave of the Apocalypse on the island of P&amp;aacute;tmos, together with the associated medieval settlement of Chor&amp;aacute;, constitute an exceptional example of a traditional Greek Orthodox pilgrimage centre of outstanding architectural interest.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (vi):&lt;/em&gt; The Monastery of Hagios Ioannis Theologos and the Cave of the Apocalypse commemorate the site where St John the Theologian (Divine), the &amp;ldquo;Beloved Disciple&amp;rdquo;, composed two of the most sacred Christian works, his Gospel and the Apocalypse.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>37.3000000000</latitude><location>Prefecture of Dodecanese, Region of the South Aegean</location><longitude>26.5500000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The small island of P&amp;aacute;tmos in the Dodecanese is reputed to be where St John the Theologian wrote both his Gospel and the Apocalypse. A monastery dedicated to the &amp;lsquo;beloved disciple&amp;rsquo; was founded there in the late 10th century and it has been a place of pilgrimage and Greek Orthodox learning ever since. The fine monastic complex dominates the island. The old settlement of Chor&amp;aacute;, associated with it, contains many religious and secular buildings.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>The Historic Centre (Chorá) with the Monastery of Saint-John the Theologian and the Cave of the Apocalypse on the Island of Pátmos</site><states>Greece</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1098</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2007</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/978</http_url><id_number>978</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_978.jpg</image_url><iso_code>gr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>39.6239413889</latitude><location>Ionian Islands, Corfu Prefecture </location><longitude>19.9275000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Old Town of Corfu, on the Island of Corfu off the western coasts of Albania and Greece, is located in a strategic position at the entrance of the Adriatic Sea, and has its roots in the 8th century BC. The three forts of the town, designed by renowned Venetian engineers, were used for four centuries to defend the maritime trading interests of the Republic of Venice against the Ottoman Empire. In the course of time, the forts were repaired and partly rebuilt several times, more recently under British rule in the 19th century. The mainly neoclassical housing stock of the Old Town is partly from the Venetian period, partly of later construction, notably the 19th century. As a fortified Mediterranean port, Corfu&amp;rsquo;s urban and port ensemble is notable for its high level of integrity and authenticity.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Old Town of Corfu</site><states>Greece</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1477</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2016</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1517</http_url><id_number>1517</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1517.jpg</image_url><iso_code>gr</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>41.0147222222</latitude><location></location><longitude>24.2852777778</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The remains of this walled city lie at the foot of an acropolis in north-eastern Greece, on the ancient route linking Europe and Asia, the&lt;span&gt; &lt;/span&gt;&lt;em&gt;Via Egnatia&lt;/em&gt;. Founded in 356 BC by the Macedonian King Philip II, the city developed as a “small Rome” with the establishment of the Roman Empire in the decades following the Battle of Philippi, in 42 BCE. The vibrant Hellenistic city of Philip II, of which the walls and their gates, the theatre and the funerary heroon (temple) are to be seen, was supplemented with Roman public buildings such as the Forum and a monumental terrace with temples to its north&lt;span&gt;. Later the city became a centre of the Christian faith following the visit of the Apostle Paul in 49-50 CE. The remains of its basilicas constitute an exceptional testimony to the early establishment of Christianity.  &lt;/span&gt;&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Archaeological Site of Philippi</site><states>Greece</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2109</unique_number></row><row><category>Mixed</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)(iv)(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1979</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/64</http_url><id_number>64</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_64.jpg</image_url><iso_code>gt</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>17.2166666700</latitude><location>Department of El Peten</location><longitude>-89.6166666700</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;In the heart of the jungle, surrounded by lush vegetation, lies one of the major sites of Mayan civilization, inhabited from the 6th century B.C. to the 10th century A.D. The ceremonial centre contains superb temples and palaces, and public squares accessed by means of ramps. Remains of dwellings are scattered throughout the surrounding countryside.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Tikal National Park</site><states>Guatemala</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>68</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1979</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/65</http_url><id_number>65</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_65.jpg</image_url><iso_code>gt</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>14.5666666700</latitude><location>Department of Sacatepéquez, Panchoy Valley</location><longitude>-90.6666666700</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Antigua, the capital of the Captaincy-General of Guatemala, was founded in the early 16th century. Built 1,500 m above sea-level, in an earthquake-prone region, it was largely destroyed by an earthquake in 1773 but its principal monuments are still preserved as ruins. In the space of under three centuries the city, which was built on a grid pattern inspired by the Italian Renaissance, acquired a number of superb monuments.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Antigua Guatemala</site><states>Guatemala</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>69</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1981</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/149</http_url><id_number>149</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_149.jpg</image_url><iso_code>gt</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>15.2705900000</latitude><location>Department of Izabal</location><longitude>-89.0402500000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Inhabited since the 2nd century A.D., Quirigua had become during the reign of Cauac Sky (723&amp;ndash;84) the capital of an autonomous and prosperous state. The ruins of Quirigua contain some outstanding 8th-century monuments and an impressive series of carved stelae and sculpted calendars that constitute an essential source for the study of Mayan civilization.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Archaeological Park and Ruins of Quirigua</site><states>Guatemala</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>167</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1982</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/180</http_url><id_number>180</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_180.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ht</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>19.5736100000</latitude><location>Département du Nord</location><longitude>-72.2441700000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;These Haitian monuments date from the beginning of the 19th century, when Haiti proclaimed its independence. The Palace of Sans Souci, the buildings at Ramiers and, in particular, the Citadel serve as universal symbols of liberty, being the first monuments to be constructed by black slaves who had gained their freedom.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>National History Park – Citadel, Sans Souci, Ramiers</site><states>Haiti</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>199</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1984</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/286</http_url><id_number>286</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_286.jpg</image_url><iso_code>va</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>41.9021600000</latitude><location>Vatican City State</location><longitude>12.4573600000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Vatican City, one of the most sacred places in Christendom, attests to a great history and a formidable spiritual venture. A unique collection of artistic and architectural masterpieces lie within the boundaries of this small state. At its centre is St Peter's Basilica, with its double colonnade and a circular piazza in front and bordered by palaces and gardens. The basilica, erected over the tomb of St Peter the Apostle, is the largest religious building in the world, the fruit of the combined genius of Bramante, Raphael, Michelangelo, Bernini and Maderno.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Vatican City</site><states>Holy See</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>320</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1980</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/129</http_url><id_number>129</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_129.jpg</image_url><iso_code>hn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>14.8500000000</latitude><location>Copán; westernmost part of the country</location><longitude>-89.1333300000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Discovered in 1570 by Diego García de Palacio, the ruins of Copán, one of the most important sites of the Mayan civilization, were not excavated until the 19th century. The ruined citadel and imposing public squares reveal the three main stages of development before the city was abandoned in the early 10th century.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Maya Site of Copan</site><states>Honduras</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>141</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(viii)(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger>Y 2011 P 1996-2007</danger><date_inscribed>1982</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/196</http_url><id_number>196</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_196.jpg</image_url><iso_code>hn</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>15.7444444400</latitude><location>Northeast of the country in the area known as the “Mosquitia Hondureña”</location><longitude>-84.6750000000</longitude><region>Latin America and the Caribbean</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Located on the watershed of the R&amp;iacute;o Pl&amp;aacute;tano, the reserve is one of the few remains of a tropical rainforest in Central America and has an abundant and varied plant and wildlife. In its mountainous landscape sloping down to the Caribbean coast, over 2,000 indigenous people have preserved their traditional way of life.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve</site><states>Honduras</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>217</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1987</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/400</http_url><id_number>400</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_400.jpg</image_url><iso_code>hu</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>47.4824200000</latitude><location>Budapest</location><longitude>19.0706700000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2002</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This site has the remains of monuments such as the Roman city of Aquincum and the Gothic castle of Buda, which have had a considerable influence on the architecture of various periods. It is one of the world's outstanding urban landscapes and illustrates the great periods in the history of the Hungarian capital.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Budapest, including the Banks of the Danube, the Buda Castle Quarter and Andrássy Avenue</site><states>Hungary</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>462</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1987</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/401</http_url><id_number>401</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_401.jpg</image_url><iso_code>hu</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>47.9944400000</latitude><location>County of Nógrád</location><longitude>19.5291700000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Hollok&amp;ouml; is an outstanding example of a deliberately preserved traditional settlement. This village, which developed mainly during the 17th and 18th centuries, is a living example of rural life before the agricultural revolution of the 20th century.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Old Village of Hollókő and its Surroundings</site><states>Hungary</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>464</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1999</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/474</http_url><id_number>474</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_474.jpg</image_url><iso_code>hu</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; The Hungarian Puszta is an outstanding example of a cultural landscape shaped by a pastoral human society.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (v):&lt;/em&gt; The landscape of the Hortob&amp;aacute;gy National Park preserves intact and visible the evidence of its traditional use over more than two millennia and represents the harmonious interaction between human beings and nature.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>47.5945800000</latitude><location>Counties of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, Heves, Hajdú-Bihar and Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok</location><longitude>21.1567800000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The cultural landscape of the Hortob&amp;aacute;gy &lt;em&gt;Puszta&lt;/em&gt; consists of a vast area of plains and wetlands in eastern Hungary. Traditional forms of land use, such as the grazing of domestic animals, have been present in this pastoral society for more than two millennia.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Hortobágy National Park - the &lt;i&gt;Puszta&lt;/i&gt;</site><states>Hungary</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>552</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1996</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/758</http_url><id_number>758</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_758.jpg</image_url><iso_code>hu</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee decided to inscribe the nominated property on the basis of cultural criteria (iv) and (vi) considering that the site is of outstanding universal value illustrating in an exceptional manner the structure and setting of an early Christian Monastery that has evolved over a thousand years of continuous use. Its location and the early date of its foundation bear unique witness to the propagation and continuity of Christianity in Central Europe.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>47.5588900000</latitude><location>County of Györ-Moson-Sopron</location><longitude>17.7844400000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The first Benedictine monks settled here in 996. They went on to convert the Hungarians, to found the country's first school and, in 1055, to write the first document in Hungarian. From the time of its founding, this monastic community has promoted culture throughout central Europe. Its 1,000-year history can be seen in the succession of architectural styles of the monastic buildings (the oldest dating from 1224), which still today house a school and the monastic community.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Millenary Benedictine Abbey of Pannonhalma and its Natural Environment</site><states>Hungary</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>893</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2000</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/853</http_url><id_number>853</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_853.jpg</image_url><iso_code>hu</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii):&lt;/em&gt; The burial chambers and memorial chapels of the Sopianae cemetery bear outstanding testimony to the strength and faith of the Christian communities of Late Roman Europe.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; The unique Early Christian sepulchral art and architecture of the northern and western Roman provinces is exceptionally well and fully illustrated by the Sopianae cemetery at Pécs.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>46.0744400000</latitude><location>County of Baranya</location><longitude>18.2277800000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;In the 4th century, a remarkable series of decorated tombs were constructed in the cemetery of the Roman provincial town of Sopianae (modern Pécs). These are important both structurally and architecturally, since they were built as underground burial chambers with memorial chapels above the ground. The tombs are important also in artistic terms, since they are richly decorated with murals of outstanding quality depicting Christian themes.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Early Christian Necropolis of Pécs (Sopianae)</site><states>Hungary</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1004</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2002</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1063</http_url><id_number>1063</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1063.jpg</image_url><iso_code>hu</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii):&lt;/em&gt; &amp;nbsp;The Tokaji wine region represents a distinct viticultural tradition that has existed for at least a thousand years and which has survived intact up to the present.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (v):&lt;/em&gt; The entire landscape of the Tokaji wine region, including both vineyards and long established settlements, vividly illustrates the specialized form of traditional land-use that it represents.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>48.1500000000</latitude><location>County of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén</location><longitude>21.3500000000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The cultural landscape of Tokaj graphically demonstrates the long tradition of wine production in this region of low hills and river valleys. The intricate pattern of vineyards, farms, villages and small towns, with their historic networks of deep wine cellars, illustrates every facet of the production of the famous Tokaj wines, the quality and management of which have been strictly regulated for nearly three centuries.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Tokaj Wine Region Historic Cultural Landscape</site><states>Hungary</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1240</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2004</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1152</http_url><id_number>1152</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1152.jpg</image_url><iso_code>is</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii):&lt;/em&gt; The Althing and its hinterland, the Þingvellir National Park, represent, through the remains of the assembly ground, the booths for those who attended, and through landscape evidence of settlement extending back possibly to the time the assembly was established, a unique reflection of mediaeval Norse/Germanic culture and one that persisted in essence from its foundation in 980 AD until the 18th century.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (vi):&lt;/em&gt; Pride in the strong association of the Althing to mediaeval Germanic/Norse governance, known through the 12th century Icelandic sagas, and reinforced during the fight for independence in the 19th century, have, together with the powerful natural setting of the assembly grounds, given the site iconic status as a shrine for the national.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>64.2538055600</latitude><location>Bláskógabyggð municipality, district of Arnessysla</location><longitude>-21.0372500000</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Þingvellir (Thingvellir) is the National Park where the Althing, an open-air assembly representing the whole of Iceland, was established in 930 and continued to meet until 1798. Over two weeks a year, the assembly set laws - seen as a covenant between free men - and settled disputes. The Althing has deep historical and symbolic associations for the people of Iceland. The property includes the Þingvellir National Park and the remains of the Althing itself: fragments of around 50 booths built from turf and stone. Remains from the 10th century are thought to be buried underground. The site also includes remains of agricultural use from the 18th and 19th centuries. The park shows evidence of the way the landscape was husbanded over 1,000 years.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Þingvellir National Park</site><states>Iceland</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1333</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(ix)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2008</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1267</http_url><id_number>1267</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1267.jpg</image_url><iso_code>is</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>63.3030555556</latitude><location></location><longitude>-20.6022222222</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Surtsey, a volcanic island approximately 32 km from the south coast of Iceland, is a new island formed by volcanic eruptions that took place from 1963 to 1967. It is all the more outstanding for having been protected since its birth, providing the world with a pristine natural laboratory. Free from human interference, Surtsey has been producing unique long-term information on the colonisation process of new land by plant and animal life. Since they began studying the island in 1964, scientists have observed the arrival of seeds carried by ocean currents, the appearance of moulds, bacteria and fungi, followed in 1965 by the first vascular plant, of which there were 10 species by the end of the first decade. By 2004, they numbered 60 together with 75 bryophytes, 71 lichens and 24 fungi. Eighty-nine species of birds have been recorded on Surtsey, 57 of which breed elsewhere in Iceland. The 141 ha island is also home to 335 species of invertebrates.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Surtsey</site><states>Iceland</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1532</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(viii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2019</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1604</http_url><id_number>1604</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1604.jpg</image_url><iso_code>is</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>64.5773630000</latitude><location></location><longitude>-16.8815404444</longitude><region>Europe and North America</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This iconic volcanic region covers an area of over 1,400,000 ha, nearly 14% of Iceland's territory. It numbers ten central volcanoes, eight of which are subglacial. Two of these are among the most active in Iceland. The interaction between volcanoes and the rifts that underlie the Vatnajökull ice cap takes many forms, the most spectacular of which is the &lt;em&gt;jökulhlaup&lt;/em&gt; – a sudden flood caused by the breach of the margin of a glacier during an eruption. This recurrent phenomenon has led to the emergence of unique sandur plains, river systems and rapidly evolving canyons. Volcanic areas are home to endemic groundwater fauna that has survived the Ice Age.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Vatnajökull National Park - Dynamic Nature of Fire and Ice</site><states>Iceland</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2301</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1993</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/233</http_url><id_number>233</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_233.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee inscribed the site on the World Heritage List under criterion (iv)&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>28.5258300000</latitude><location>Delhi</location><longitude>77.1852800000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Built in the early 13th century a few kilometres south of Delhi, the red sandstone tower of Qutb Minar is 72.5 m high, tapering from 2.75 m in diameter at its peak to 14.32 m at its base, and alternating angular and rounded flutings. The surrounding archaeological area contains funerary buildings, notably the magnificent Alai-Darwaza Gate, the masterpiece of Indo-Muslim art (built in 1311), and two mosques, including the Quwwatu'l-Islam, the oldest in northern India, built of materials reused from some 20 Brahman temples.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>259</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1986</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/234</http_url><id_number>234</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_234.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>15.5022200000</latitude><location>State of Goa</location><longitude>73.9116700000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The churches and convents of Goa, the former capital of the Portuguese Indies – particularly the Church of Bom Jesus, which contains the tomb of St Francis-Xavier – illustrate the evangelization of Asia. These monuments were influential in spreading forms of Manueline, Mannerist and Baroque art in all the countries of Asia where missions were established.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Churches and Convents of Goa</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>260</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1987</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/239</http_url><id_number>239</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_239.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>15.9483300000</latitude><location>State of Karnataka, Bijapur District, Badami Taluk</location><longitude>75.8166700000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Pattadakal, in Karnataka, represents the high point of an eclectic art which, in the 7th and 8th centuries under the Chalukya dynasty, achieved a harmonious blend of architectural forms from northern and southern India. An impressive series of nine Hindu temples, as well as a Jain sanctuary, can be seen there. One masterpiece from the group stands out – the Temple of Virupaksha, built c. 740 by Queen Lokamahadevi to commemorate her husband's victory over the kings from the South.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Group of Monuments at Pattadakal</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>266</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1986</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/240</http_url><id_number>240</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_240.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>24.8522200000</latitude><location>State of Madhya Pradesh</location><longitude>79.9222200000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The temples at Khajuraho were built during the Chandella dynasty, which reached its apogee between 950 and 1050. Only about 20 temples remain; they fall into three distinct groups and belong to two different religions – Hinduism and Jainism. They strike a perfect balance between architecture and sculpture. The Temple of Kandariya is decorated with a profusion of sculptures that are among the greatest masterpieces of Indian art.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Khajuraho Group of Monuments</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>267</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1983</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/242</http_url><id_number>242</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_242.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>20.5533300000</latitude><location>Maharashtra State, Aurangabad District , Soyagon Taluka, Lenapur Village</location><longitude>75.7000000000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The first Buddhist cave monuments at Ajanta date from the 2nd and 1st centuries B.C. During the Gupta period (5th and 6th centuries A.D.), many more richly decorated caves were added to the original group. The paintings and sculptures of Ajanta, considered masterpieces of Buddhist religious art, have had a considerable artistic influence.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Ajanta Caves</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>269</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1983</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/243</http_url><id_number>243</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_243.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>20.0263900000</latitude><location>Maharashtra State, Aurangabad District, Khulatabad Taluk , Verul Village</location><longitude>75.1791700000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;These 34 monasteries and temples, extending over more than 2 km, were dug side by side in the wall of a high basalt cliff, not far from Aurangabad, in Maharashtra. Ellora, with its uninterrupted sequence of monuments dating from A.D. 600 to 1000, brings the civilization of ancient India to life. Not only is the Ellora complex a unique artistic creation and a technological exploit but, with its sanctuaries devoted to Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism, it illustrates the spirit of tolerance that was characteristic of ancient India.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Ellora Caves</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>270</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1987</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/244</http_url><id_number>244</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_244.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>18.9666700000</latitude><location>Maharashtra State, District Kolaba (Island of Elephanta)</location><longitude>72.9358300000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The 'City of Caves', on an island in the Sea of Oman close to Bombay, contains a collection of rock art linked to the cult of Shiva. Here, Indian art has found one of its most perfect expressions, particularly the huge high reliefs in the main cave.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Elephanta Caves</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>272</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1984</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/246</http_url><id_number>246</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_246.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>19.8875000000</latitude><location>State of Orissa, Puri District</location><longitude>86.0947200000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;On the shores of the Bay of Bengal, bathed in the rays of the rising sun, the temple at Konarak is a monumental representation of the sun god Surya's chariot; its 24 wheels are decorated with symbolic designs and it is led by a team of six horses. Built in the 13th century, it is one of India's most famous Brahman sanctuaries.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Sun Temple, Konârak</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>274</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1984</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/249</http_url><id_number>249</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_249.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>12.6166700000</latitude><location>Tamil Nadu State, Chingleput District</location><longitude>80.1916700000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This group of sanctuaries, founded by the Pallava kings, was carved out of rock along the Coromandel coast in the 7th and 8th centuries. It is known especially for its &lt;em&gt;rathas&lt;/em&gt; (temples in the form of chariots), &lt;em&gt;mandapas&lt;/em&gt; (cave sanctuaries), giant open-air reliefs such as the famous 'Descent of the Ganges', and the temple of Rivage, with thousands of sculptures to the glory of Shiva.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>277</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1987</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/250</http_url><id_number>250</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_250.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (i):&lt;/em&gt; The three Chola temples of Southern India represent an outstanding creative achievement in the architectural conception of the pure form of the dravida type of temple.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; The Brihadisvara Temple at Thanjavur became the first great example of the Chola temples, followed by a development of which the other two properties also bear witness.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii):&lt;/em&gt; The three Great Chola Temples are an exceptional and the most outstanding testimony to the development of the architecture of the Chola Empire and the Tamil civilisation in Southern India.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; The Great Chola temples at Thanjavur, at Gangaikondacholapuram and Darasuram are outstanding examples of the architecture and the representation of the Chola ideology.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>10.7830555600</latitude><location></location><longitude>79.1325000000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2004</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Great Living Chola Temples were built by kings of the Chola Empire, which stretched over all of south India and the neighbouring islands. The site includes three great 11th- and 12th-century Temples: the Brihadisvara Temple at Thanjavur, the Brihadisvara Temple at Gangaikondacholisvaram and the Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram. The Temple of Gangaikondacholisvaram, built by Rajendra I, was completed in 1035. Its 53-m &lt;em&gt;vimana&lt;/em&gt; (sanctum tower) has recessed corners and a graceful upward curving movement, contrasting with the straight and severe tower at Thanjavur. The Airavatesvara temple complex, built by Rajaraja II, at Darasuram features a 24-m &lt;em&gt;vimana&lt;/em&gt; and a stone image of Shiva. The temples testify to the brilliant achievements of the Chola in architecture, sculpture, painting and bronze casting.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Great Living Chola Temples</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>280</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1983</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/251</http_url><id_number>251</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_251.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>27.1833333300</latitude><location>Uttar Pradesh, Agra District</location><longitude>78.0333333300</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Near the gardens of the Taj Mahal stands the important 16th-century Mughal monument known as the Red Fort of Agra. This powerful fortress of red sandstone encompasses, within its 2.5-km-long enclosure walls, the imperial city of the Mughal rulers. It comprises many fairy-tale palaces, such as the Jahangir Palace and the Khas Mahal, built by Shah Jahan; audience halls, such as the Diwan-i-Khas; and two very beautiful mosques.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Agra Fort</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>281</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1983</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/252</http_url><id_number>252</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_252.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>27.1741700000</latitude><location>Uttar Pradesh, Agra District</location><longitude>78.0422200000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;An immense mausoleum of white marble, built in Agra between 1631 and 1648 by order of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his favourite wife, the Taj Mahal is the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Taj Mahal</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>282</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1986</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/255</http_url><id_number>255</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_255.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>27.0944400000</latitude><location>Uttar Pradesh, Agra District</location><longitude>77.6641700000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Built during the second half of the 16th century by the Emperor Akbar, Fatehpur Sikri (the City of Victory) was the capital of the Mughal Empire for only some 10 years. The complex of monuments and temples, all in a uniform architectural style, includes one of the largest mosques in India, the Jama Masjid.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Fatehpur Sikri</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>285</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1988</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/335</http_url><id_number>335</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_335.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (vii): &lt;/em&gt;The Valley of Flowers is an outstandingly beautiful high-altitude Himalayan valley that has been acknowledged as such by renowned mountaineers and botanists in literature for over a century and in Hindu mythology for much longer. Its &amp;lsquo;gentle&amp;rsquo; landscape, breath-takingly beautiful meadows of alpine flowers and ease of access complement the rugged, mountain wilderness for which the inner basin of Nanda Devi National Park is renowned.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (x): &lt;/em&gt;The Valley of Flowers is internationally important on account of its diverse alpine flora, representative of the West Himalaya biogeographic zone. The rich diversity of species reflects the valley&amp;rsquo;s location within a transition zone between the Zaskar and Great Himalaya ranges to the north and south, respectively, and between the Eastern and Western Himalaya flora. A number of plant species are internationally threatened, several have not been recorded from elsewhere in Uttaranchal and two have not been recorded in Nanda Devi National Park. The diversity of threatened species of medicinal plants is higher than has been recorded in other Indian Himalayan protected areas. The entire Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve lies within the Western Himalayas Endemic Bird Area (EBA). Seven restricted-range bird species are endemic to this part of the EBA.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>30.7166700000</latitude><location>State of Uttaranchal</location><longitude>79.6666700000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2005</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Nestled high in West Himalaya, India&amp;rsquo;s Valley of Flowers National Park is renowned for its meadows of endemic alpine flowers and outstanding natural beauty. This richly diverse area is also home to rare and endangered animals, including the Asiatic black bear, snow leopard, brown bear and blue sheep. The gentle landscape of the Valley of Flowers National Park complements the rugged mountain wilderness of Nanda Devi National Park. Together they encompass a unique transition zone between the mountain ranges of the Zanskar and Great Himalaya, praised by mountaineers and botanists for over a century and in Hindu mythology for much longer.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks </site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>382</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1985</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/337</http_url><id_number>337</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_337.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>26.6666666700</latitude><location>State of Assam</location><longitude>93.4166666700</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;In the heart of Assam, this park is one of the last areas in eastern India undisturbed by a human presence. It is inhabited by the world's largest population of one-horned rhinoceroses, as well as many mammals, including tigers, elephants, panthers and bears, and thousands of birds.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Kaziranga National Park</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>384</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger>Y 1992-2011</danger><date_inscribed>1985</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/338</http_url><id_number>338</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_338.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>26.7250000000</latitude><location>State of Assam</location><longitude>91.0305555600</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;On a gentle slope in the foothills of the Himalayas, where wooded hills give way to alluvial grasslands and tropical forests, the Manas sanctuary is home to a great variety of wildlife, including many endangered species, such as the tiger, pygmy hog, Indian rhinoceros and Indian elephant.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Manas Wildlife Sanctuary</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>385</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1985</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/340</http_url><id_number>340</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_340.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>27.1588888900</latitude><location>State of Rajasthan, 50 km west of Agra</location><longitude>77.5086111100</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This former duck-hunting reserve of the Maharajas is one of the major wintering areas for large numbers of aquatic birds from Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, China and Siberia. Some 364 species of birds, including the rare Siberian crane, have been recorded in the park.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Keoladeo National Park</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>387</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1987</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/452</http_url><id_number>452</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_452.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>21.9450000000</latitude><location>West Bengal</location><longitude>88.8958333300</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Sundarbans covers 10,000 km&lt;sup&gt;2&lt;/sup&gt; of land and water (more than half of it in India, the rest in Bangladesh) in the Ganges delta. It contains the world's largest area of mangrove forests. A number of rare or endangered species live in the park, including tigers, aquatic mammals, birds and reptiles.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Sundarbans National Park</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>524</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1989</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/524</http_url><id_number>524</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_524.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>23.4794400000</latitude><location>Madhya Pradesh</location><longitude>77.7397200000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;On a hill overlooking the plain and about 40 km from Bhopal, the site of Sanchi comprises a group of Buddhist monuments (monolithic pillars, palaces, temples and monasteries) all in different states of conservation most of which date back to the 2nd and 1st centuries B.C. It is the oldest Buddhist sanctuary in existence and was a major Buddhist centre in India until the 12th century A.D.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>613</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2003</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/925</http_url><id_number>925</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_925.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;Criterion (iii): Bhimbetka reflects a long interaction between people and the landscape, as demonstrated in the quantity and quality of its rock art. Criterion (v): Bhimbetka is closely associated with a hunting and gathering economy as demonstrated in the rock art and in the relicts of this tradition in the local adivasi villages on the periphery of this site.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>22.9277777800</latitude><location>Madhya Pradesh</location><longitude>77.5833333300</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka are in the foothills of the Vindhyan Mountains on the southern edge of the central Indian plateau. Within massive sandstone outcrops, above comparatively dense forest, are five clusters of natural rock shelters, displaying paintings that appear to date from the Mesolithic Period right through to the historical period. The cultural traditions of the inhabitants of the twenty-one villages adjacent to the site bear a strong resemblance to those represented in the rock paintings.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1079</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2004</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/945</http_url><id_number>945</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_945.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus of Mumbai (formerly Bombay) exhibits an important interchange of influences from Victorian Italianate Gothic Revival architecture, and from Indian traditional buildings. It became a symbol for Mumbai as a major mercantile port city on the Indian Subcontinent within the British Commonwealth.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus is an outstanding example of late 19th century railway architecture in the British Commonwealth, characterized by Victorian Gothic Revival and traditional Indian features, as well as its advanced structural and technical solutions.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>18.9401222222</latitude><location>City of Mumbai, Maharashtra State</location><longitude>72.8362027777</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, formerly known as Victoria Terminus Station, in Mumbai, is an outstanding example of Victorian Gothic Revival architecture in India, blended with themes deriving from Indian traditional architecture. The building, designed by the British architect F. W. Stevens, became the symbol of Bombay as the &amp;lsquo;Gothic City&amp;rsquo; and the major international mercantile port of India. The terminal was built over 10 years, starting in 1878, according to a High Victorian Gothic design based on late medieval Italian models. Its remarkable stone dome, turrets, pointed arches and eccentric ground plan are close to traditional Indian palace architecture. It is an outstanding example of the meeting of two cultures, as British architects worked with Indian craftsmen to include Indian architectural tradition and idioms thus forging a new style unique to Bombay.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus)</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1105</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2002</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1056</http_url><id_number>1056</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1056.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;Criterion (i): The grand 50m high Mahabodhi Temple of the 5th-6th centuries is of immense importance, being one of the earliest temple constructions existing in the Indian sub-continent. It is one of the few representations of the architectural genius of the Indian people in constructing fully developed brick temples in that era.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;Criterion (ii): The Mahabodhi Temple, one of the few surviving examples of early brick structures in India, has had significant influence in the development of architecture over the centuries.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;Criterion (iii): The site of the Mahabodhi Temple provides exceptional records for the events associated with the life of Buddha and subsequent worship, particularly since Emperor Asoka built the first temple, the balustrades, and the memorial column.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;Criterion (iv): The present Temple is one of the earliest and most imposing structures built entirely in brick from the late Gupta period. The sculpted stone balustrades are an outstanding early example of sculptural reliefs in stone.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;Criterion (vi): The Mahabodhi Temple Complex in Bodh Gaya has direct association with the life of the Lord Buddha, being the place where He attained the supreme and perfect insight.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>24.6952800000</latitude><location>State of Bihar, Eastern India</location><longitude>84.9938900000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Mahabodhi Temple Complex is one of the four holy sites related to the life of the Lord Buddha, and particularly to the attainment of Enlightenment. The first temple was built by Emperor Asoka in the 3rd century B.C., and the present temple dates from the 5th or 6th centuries. It is one of the earliest Buddhist temples built entirely in brick, still standing in India, from the late Gupta period.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1231</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)(v)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2004</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1101</http_url><id_number>1101</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1101.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii):&lt;/em&gt; The Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park with its ancient Hindu architecture, temples and special water retaining installations together with its religious, military and agricultural structures, dating back to the regional Capital City built by Mehmud Begda in the 16th century, represents cultures which have disappeared.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; The structures represent a perfect blend of Hindu-Moslem architecture, mainly in the Great Mosque (Jami Masjid), which was a model for later mosque architecture in India. This special style comes from the significant period of regional sultanates.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (v):&lt;/em&gt; The Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park is an outstanding example of a very short living Capital, making the best use of its setting, topography and natural features. It is quite vulnerable due to abandonment, forest takeover and modern life.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (vi):&lt;/em&gt; The Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park is a place of worship and continuous pilgrimage for Hindu believers.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>22.4833333300</latitude><location>Gujarat state, district of Panchmahal</location><longitude>73.5333333300</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;A concentration of largely unexcavated archaeological, historic and living cultural heritage properties cradled in an impressive landscape which includes prehistoric (chalcolithic) sites, a hill fortress of an early Hindu capital, and remains of the 16th-century capital of the state of Gujarat. The site also includes, among other vestiges, fortifications, palaces, religious buildings, residential precincts, agricultural structures and water installations, from the 8th to 14th centuries. The Kalikamata Temple on top of Pavagadh Hill is considered to be an important shrine, attracting large numbers of pilgrims throughout the year. The site is the only complete and unchanged Islamic pre-Mughal city.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1279</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2007</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/231</http_url><id_number>231</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_231.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>28.6555555556</latitude><location>New Delhi State, Central District, New Delhi</location><longitude>77.2408333333</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Red Fort Complex was built as the palace fort of Shahjahanabad &amp;ndash; the new capital of the fifth Mughal Emperor of India, Shah Jahan. Named for its massive enclosing walls of red sandstone, it is adjacent to an older fort, the Salimgarh, built by Islam Shah Suri in 1546, with which it forms the Red Fort Complex. The private apartments consist of a row of pavilions connected by a continuous water channel, known as the Nahr-i-Behisht (Stream of Paradise). The Red Fort is considered to represent the zenith of Mughal creativity which, under the Shah Jahan, was brought to a new level of refinement. The planning of the palace is based on Islamic prototypes, but each pavilion reveals architectural elements typical of Mughal building, reflecting a fusion of Persian, Timurid and Hindu traditions The Red Fort&amp;rsquo;s innovative planning and architectural style, including the garden design, strongly influenced later buildings and gardens in Rajasthan, Delhi, Agra and further afield.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Red Fort Complex</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1460</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1999</date_inscribed><extension>1</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/944</http_url><id_number>944</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_944.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>11.5102800000</latitude><location></location><longitude>76.9358300000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates>2005,2008</secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This site includes three railways. The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway was the first, and is still the most outstanding, example of a hill passenger railway. Opened in 1881, its design applies bold and ingenious engineering solutions to the problem of establishing an effective rail link across a mountainous terrain of great beauty. The construction of the Nilgiri Mountain Railway, a 46-km long metre-gauge single-track railway in Tamil Nadu State was first proposed in 1854, but due to the difficulty of the mountainous location the work only started in 1891 and was completed in 1908. This railway, scaling an elevation of 326 m to 2,203 m, represented the latest technology of the time. The Kalka Shimla Railway, a 96-km long, single track working rail link built in the mid-19th century to provide a service to the highland town of Shimla is emblematic of the technical and material efforts to disenclave mountain populations through the railway. All three railways are still fully operational.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Mountain Railways of India</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1540</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2010</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1338</http_url><id_number>1338</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1338.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>26.9247222222</latitude><location></location><longitude>75.8250000000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Jantar Mantar, in Jaipur, is an astronomical observation site built in the early 18th century. It includes a set of some 20 main fixed instruments. They are monumental examples in masonry of known instruments but which in many cases have specific characteristics of their own. Designed for the observation of astronomical positions with the naked eye, they embody several architectural and instrumental innovations. This is the most significant, most comprehensive, and the best preserved of India's historic observatories. It is an expression of the astronomical skills and cosmological concepts of the court of a scholarly prince at the end of the Mughal period.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>The Jantar Mantar, Jaipur</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1677</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2012</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1342</http_url><id_number>1342</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1342.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>8.5297222222</latitude><location></location><longitude>77.2497222222</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Older than the Himalaya mountains, the mountain chain of the Western Ghats represents geomorphic features of immense importance with unique biophysical and ecological processes. The site&amp;rsquo;s high montane forest ecosystems influence the Indian monsoon weather pattern. Moderating the tropical climate of the region, the site presents one of the best examples of the monsoon system on the planet. It also has an exceptionally high level of biological diversity and endemism and is recognized as one of the world&amp;rsquo;s eight &amp;lsquo;hottest hotspots&amp;rsquo; of biological diversity. The forests of the site include some of the best representatives of non-equatorial tropical evergreen forests anywhere and are home to at least 325 globally threatened flora, fauna, bird, amphibian, reptile and fish species.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Western Ghats</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1921</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger>P 1999-2006</danger><date_inscribed>1986</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/241</http_url><id_number>241</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_241.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>15.3144400000</latitude><location>Karnataka, Bellary District</location><longitude>76.4716700000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The austere, grandiose site of Hampi was the last capital of the last great Hindu Kingdom of Vijayanagar. Its fabulously rich princes built Dravidian temples and palaces which won the admiration of travellers between the 14th and 16th centuries. Conquered by the Deccan Muslim confederacy in 1565, the city was pillaged over a period of six months before being abandoned.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Group of Monuments at Hampi</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1932</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2013</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/247</http_url><id_number>247</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_247.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>24.8833333333</latitude><location></location><longitude>74.6461111111</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The serial site, situated in the state of Rajastahan, includes six majestic forts in Chittorgarh; Kumbhalgarh; Sawai Madhopur; Jhalawar; Jaipur, and Jaisalmer. The ecclectic architecture of the forts, some up to 20 kilometres in circumference, bears testimony to the power of the Rajput princely states that flourished in the region from the 8th to the 18th centuries. Enclosed within defensive walls are major urban centres, palaces, trading centres and other buildings including temples that often predate the fortifications within which developed an elaborate courtly culture that supported learning, music and the arts. Some of the urban centres enclosed in the fortifications have survived, as have many of the site's temples and other sacred buildings. The forts use the natural defenses offered by the landscape: hills, deserts, rivers, and dense forests. They also feature extensive water harvesting structures, largely still in use today.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
</short_description><site>Hill Forts of Rajasthan</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1947</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2014</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/922</http_url><id_number>922</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_922.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>23.8588888889</latitude><location></location><longitude>72.1016666667</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Rani-ki-Vav, on the banks of the Saraswati River, was initially built as a memorial to a king in the 11th century AD. Stepwells are a distinctive form of subterranean water resource and storage systems on the Indian subcontinent, and have been constructed since the 3rd millennium BC. They evolved over time from what was basically a pit in sandy soil towards elaborate multi-storey works of art and architecture. Rani-ki-Vav was built at the height of craftsmens&amp;rsquo; ability in stepwell construction and the Maru-Gurjara architectural style, reflecting mastery of this complex technique and great beauty of detail and proportions. Designed as an inverted temple highlighting the sanctity of water, it is divided into seven levels of stairs with sculptural panels of high artistic quality; more than 500 principle sculptures and over a thousand minor ones combine religious, mythological and secular imagery, often referencing literary works. The fourth level is the deepest and leads into a rectangular tank 9.5&amp;nbsp;m by 9.4&amp;nbsp;m, at a depth of 23&amp;nbsp;m. The well is located at the westernmost end of the property and consists of a shaft 10&amp;nbsp;m in diameter and 30&amp;nbsp;m deep.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Rani-ki-Vav (the Queen’s Stepwell) at Patan, Gujarat</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2008</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2014</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1406</http_url><id_number>1406</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1406.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>31.8333333333</latitude><location></location><longitude>77.5833333333</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This National Park in the western part of the Himalayan Mountains in the northern Indian state of Himachal Pradesh is characterized by high alpine peaks, alpine meadows and riverine forests. The 90,540&amp;nbsp;ha property includes the upper mountain glacial and snow meltwater sources of several rivers, and the catchments of water supplies that are vital to millions of downstream users. The GHNPCA protects the monsoon-affected forests and alpine meadows of the Himalayan front ranges. It is part of the Himalaya biodiversity hotspot and includes twenty-five forest types along with a rich assemblage of fauna species, several of which are threatened. This gives the site outstanding significance for biodiversity conservation.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Great Himalayan National Park Conservation Area</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2011</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2018</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1480</http_url><id_number>1480</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1480.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>18.9298055556</latitude><location></location><longitude>72.8300833333</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Having become a global trading centre, the city of Mumbai implemented an ambitious urban planning project in the second half of the 19th century. It led to the construction of ensembles of public buildings bordering the Oval Maidan open space, first in the Victorian Neo-Gothic style and then, in the early 20th century, in the Art Deco idiom. The Victorian ensemble includes Indian elements suited to the climate, including balconies and verandas. The Art Deco edifices, with their cinemas and residential buildings, blend Indian design with Art Deco imagery, creating a unique style that has been described as&lt;em&gt; Indo-Deco&lt;/em&gt;. These two ensembles bear testimony to the phases of modernization that Mumbai has undergone in the course of the 19th and 20th centuries.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensembles of Mumbai</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2041</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2016</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1502</http_url><id_number>1502</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1502.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>25.1366666667</latitude><location> </location><longitude>85.4438888889</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Nalanda Mahavihara site is in the State of Bihar, in north-eastern India. It comprises the archaeological remains of a monastic and scholastic institution dating from the 3rd century BCE to the 13th century CE. It includes &lt;em&gt;stupas&lt;/em&gt;, shrines, &lt;em&gt;viharas&lt;/em&gt; (residential and educational buildings) and important art works in stucco, stone and metal. Nalanda stands out as the most ancient university of the Indian Subcontinent. It engaged in the organized transmission of knowledge over an uninterrupted period of 800 years. The historical development of the site testifies to the development of Buddhism into a religion and the flourishing of monastic and educational traditions.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Archaeological Site of Nalanda Mahavihara at Nalanda, Bihar</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2089</unique_number></row><row><category>Mixed</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(vi)(vii)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2016</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1513</http_url><id_number>1513</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1513.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>27.7647222222</latitude><location></location><longitude>88.3772222222</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Located at the heart of the Himalayan range in northern India (State of Sikkim), the Khangchendzonga National Park includes a unique diversity of plains, valleys, lakes, glaciers and spectacular, snow-capped mountains covered with ancient forests, including the world’s third highest peak, Mount Khangchendzonga. Mythological stories are associated with this mountain and with a great number of natural elements (caves, rivers, lakes, etc.) that are the object of worship by the indigenous people of Sikkim. The sacred meanings of these stories and practices have been integrated with Buddhist beliefs and constitute the basis for Sikkimese identity.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Khangchendzonga National Park</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2105</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2017</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1551</http_url><id_number>1551</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1551.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>23.0263888889</latitude><location></location><longitude>72.5880555556</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The walled city of Ahmadabad, founded by Sultan Ahmad Shah in the 15th century, on the eastern bank of the Sabarmati river, presents a rich architectural heritage from the sultanate period, notably the Bhadra citadel, the walls and gates of the Fort city and numerous mosques and tombs as well as important Hindu and Jain temples of later periods. The urban fabric is made up of densely-packed traditional houses (&lt;em&gt;pols&lt;/em&gt;) in gated traditional streets (&lt;em&gt;puras&lt;/em&gt;) with characteristic features such as bird feeders, public wells and religious institutions. The city continued to flourish as the capital of the State of Gujarat for six centuries, up to the present.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;span&gt;&lt;/span&gt;</short_description><site>Historic City of Ahmadabad</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2144</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1993</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/232</http_url><id_number>232</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_232.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee inscribed the site on the World Heritage List under criteria (ii) and (iv).&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>28.5933300000</latitude><location>Delhi</location><longitude>77.2505600000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This tomb, built in 1570, is of particular cultural significance as it was the first garden-tomb on the Indian subcontinent. It inspired several major architectural innovations, culminating in the construction of the Taj Mahal.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Humayun's Tomb, Delhi</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2182</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2019</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1605</http_url><id_number>1605</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1605.jpg</image_url><iso_code>in</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>26.9242777778</latitude><location></location><longitude>75.8218611111</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>The walled city of Jaipur, in India’s north-western state of Rajasthan was founded in 1727 by Sawai Jai Singh II. Unlike other cities in the region located in hilly terrain, Jaipur was established on the plain and built according to a grid plan interpreted in the light of Vedic architecture. The streets feature continuous colonnaded businesses that intersect in the centre, creating large public squares called &lt;em&gt;chaupars&lt;/em&gt;. Markets, shops, residences and temples built along the main streets have uniform facades. The city's urban planning shows an exchange of ideas from ancient Hindu and early modern Mughal as well as Western cultures. The grid plan is a model that prevails in the West, while the organization of the different city sectors (chowkris) refers to traditional Hindu concepts. Designed to be a commercial capital, the city has maintained its local commercial, artisanal and cooperative traditions to this day.</short_description><site>Jaipur City, Rajasthan</site><states>India</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2309</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1991</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/592</http_url><id_number>592</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_592.jpg</image_url><iso_code>id</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-7.6077800000</latitude><location>Regency of Magelang, Province of Central Java</location><longitude>110.2036100000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This famous Buddhist temple, dating from the 8th and 9th centuries, is located in central Java. It was built in three tiers: a pyramidal base with five concentric square terraces, the trunk of a cone with three circular platforms and, at the top, a monumental stupa. The walls and balustrades are decorated with fine low reliefs, covering a total surface area of 2,500 m&lt;sup&gt;2&lt;/sup&gt;. Around the circular platforms are 72 openwork stupas, each containing a statue of the Buddha. The monument was restored with UNESCO's help in the 1970s.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Borobudur Temple Compounds</site><states>Indonesia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>700</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1996</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/593</http_url><id_number>593</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_593.jpg</image_url><iso_code>id</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The Committee decided to inscribe the nominated site under cultural criteria (iii) and (vi) as one of the key sites for the understanding of human evolution that admirably illustrates the development of Homo sapiens sapiens from the Lower Pleistocene to the present through the outstanding fossil and artefactual material that it has produced.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>-7.4000000000</latitude><location>Province of Central Java</location><longitude>110.8166667000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Excavations here from 1936 to 1941 led to the discovery of the first hominid fossil at this site. Later, 50 fossils of &lt;em&gt;Meganthropus palaeo&lt;/em&gt; and &lt;em&gt;Pithecanthropus erectus/Homo erectus&lt;/em&gt; were found &amp;ndash; half of all the world's known hominid fossils. Inhabited for the past one and a half million years, Sangiran is one of the key sites for the understanding of human evolution.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Sangiran Early Man Site</site><states>Indonesia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>701</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1991</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/608</http_url><id_number>608</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_608.jpg</image_url><iso_code>id</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-6.7500000000</latitude><location>Provinces of Banten (formerly West Java) and Lampung</location><longitude>105.3333333000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;This national park, located in the extreme south-western tip of Java on the Sunda shelf, includes the Ujung Kulon peninsula and several offshore islands and encompasses the natural reserve of Krakatoa. In addition to its natural beauty and geological interest &amp;ndash; particularly for the study of inland volcanoes &amp;ndash; it contains the largest remaining area of lowland rainforests in the Java plain. Several species of endangered plants and animals can be found there, the Javan rhinoceros being the most seriously under threat.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Ujung Kulon National Park</site><states>Indonesia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>722</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1991</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/609</http_url><id_number>609</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_609.jpg</image_url><iso_code>id</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-8.5433300000</latitude><location>East Nusa Tenggara Province</location><longitude>119.4894400000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;These volcanic islands are inhabited by a population of around 5,700 giant lizards, whose appearance and aggressive behaviour have led to them being called 'Komodo dragons'. They exist nowhere else in the world and are of great interest to scientists studying the theory of evolution. The rugged hillsides of dry savannah and pockets of thorny green vegetation contrast starkly with the brilliant white sandy beaches and the blue waters surging over coral.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Komodo National Park</site><states>Indonesia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>723</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1991</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/642</http_url><id_number>642</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_642.jpg</image_url><iso_code>id</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-7.7522200000</latitude><location>Province of Central Java</location><longitude>110.4916700000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Built in the 10th century, this is the largest temple compound dedicated to Shiva in Indonesia. Rising above the centre of the last of these concentric squares are three temples decorated with reliefs illustrating the epic of the &lt;em&gt;Ramayana&lt;/em&gt;, dedicated to the three great Hindu divinities (Shiva, Vishnu and Brahma) and three temples dedicated to the animals who serve them.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Prambanan Temple Compounds</site><states>Indonesia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>762</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(viii)(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1999</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/955</http_url><id_number>955</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_955.jpg</image_url><iso_code>id</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;The site is the largest protected area in Southeast Asia (2.35 mil. ha.) and the only protected area in the world which incorporates a continuous, intact transect from snow cap to tropical marine environment, including extensive lowland wetlands. Located at the meeting point of two colliding continental plates, the area has a complex geology with on-going mountain formation as well as major sculpting by glaciation and shoreline accretion which has formed much of the lowland areas. These processes have led to a high level of endemism and the area supports the highest level of biodiversity in the region. The area also contains fossil sites that record the evolution of life on New Guinea.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>-4.7500000000</latitude><location>Province of Papua (formerly Irian Jaya)</location><longitude>137.8333300000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Lorentz National Park (2.35 million ha) is the largest protected area in South-East Asia. It is the only protected area in the world to incorporate a continuous, intact transect from snowcap to tropical marine environment, including extensive lowland wetlands. Located at the meeting-point of two colliding continental plates, the area has a complex geology with ongoing mountain formation as well as major sculpting by glaciation. The area also contains fossil sites which provide evidence of the evolution of life on New Guinea, a high level of endemism and the highest level of biodiversity in the region.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Lorentz National Park</site><states>Indonesia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1118</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(ix)(x)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2004</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1167</http_url><id_number>1167</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1167.jpg</image_url><iso_code>id</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Criterion (vii):&lt;/strong&gt; The parks that comprise the Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra are all located on the prominent main spine of the Bukit Barisan Mountains, known as the 'Andes of Sumatra'. Outstanding scenic landscapes abound at all scales. The mountains of each site present prominent mountainous backdrops to the settled and developed lowlands of Sumatra. The combination of the spectacularly beautiful Lake Gunung Tujuh (the highest lake in southeast Asia), the magnificence of the giant Mount Kerinci volcano, numerous small volcanic, coastal and glacial lakes in natural forested settings, fumaroles belching smoke from forested mountains and numerous waterfalls and cave systems in lush rainforest settings, emphazise the outstanding beauty of the Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Criterion (ix):&lt;/strong&gt; The Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra represent the most important blocks of forest on the island of Sumatra for the conservation of the biodiversity of both lowland and mountain forests. This once vast island of tropical rainforest, in the space of only 50 years, has been reduced to isolated remnants including those centred on the three nominated sites. The Leuser Ecosystem, including the Gunung Leuser National Park, is by far the largest and most significant forest remnant remaining in Sumatra. All three parks would undoubtedly have been important climatic refugia for species over evolutionary time and have now become critically important refugia for future evolutionary processes.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;strong&gt;Criterion (x):&lt;/strong&gt; All three parks that comprise the Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra are areas of very diverse habitat and exceptional biodiversity. Collectively, the three sites include more than 50% of the total plant diversity of Sumatra. At least 92 local endemic species have been identified in Gunung Leuser National Park. The nomination contains populations of both the world’s largest flower (Rafflesia arnoldi) and the tallest flower (Amorphophallus titanium). The relict lowland forests in the nominated sites are very important for conservation of the plant and animal biodiversity of the rapidly disappearing lowland forests of South East Asia. Similarly, the montane forests, although less threatened, are very important for conservation of the distinctive montane vegetation of the property.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>-2.5000000000</latitude><location>Provinces of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, Sumatra Utara (North Sumatra), Jambi, Sumatra Barat (West Sumatra), Sumatra Selatan (South Sumatra), Bengkulu, and Lampung on the Island of Sumatra</location><longitude>101.5000000000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The 2.5 million hectare Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra site comprises three national parks: Gunung Leuser National Park, Kerinci Seblat National Park and Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park. The site holds the greatest potential for long-term conservation of the distinctive and diverse biota of Sumatra, including many endangered species. The protected area is home to an estimated 10,000 plant species, including 17 endemic genera; more than 200 mammal species; and some 580 bird species of which 465 are resident and 21 are endemic. Of the mammal species, 22 are Asian, not found elsewhere in the archipelago and 15 are confined to the Indonesian region, including the endemic Sumatran orang-utan. The site also provides biogeographic evidence of the evolution of the island.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra</site><states>Indonesia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1344</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(v)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2012</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1194</http_url><id_number>1194</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1194.jpg</image_url><iso_code>id</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-8.2591666667</latitude><location></location><longitude>115.4027777778</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>1</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The cultural landscape of Bali consists of five rice terraces and their water temples that cover 19,500&amp;nbsp;ha. The temples are the focus of a cooperative water management system of canals and weirs, known as &lt;em&gt;subak,&lt;/em&gt; that dates back to the 9th century. Included in the landscape is the 18th-century Royal Water Temple of Pura Taman Ayun, the largest and most impressive architectural edifice of its type on the island. The &lt;em&gt;subak&lt;/em&gt; reflects the philosophical concept of &lt;em&gt;Tri Hita Karana&lt;/em&gt;, which brings together the realms of the spirit, the human world and nature. This philosophy was born of the cultural exchange between Bali and India over the past 2,000 years and has shaped the landscape of Bali. The &lt;em&gt;subak &lt;/em&gt;system of democratic and egalitarian farming practices has enabled the Balinese to become the most prolific rice growers in the archipelago despite the challenge of supporting a dense population.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Cultural Landscape of Bali Province: the &lt;em&gt;Subak&lt;/em&gt; System as a Manifestation of the &lt;em&gt;Tri Hita Karana&lt;/em&gt; Philosophy</site><states>Indonesia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1836</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2019</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1610</http_url><id_number>1610</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1610.jpg</image_url><iso_code>id</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>-0.7666255556</latitude><location></location><longitude>100.7378833333</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Built for the extraction, processing and transport of high-quality coal in an inaccessible region of Sumatra, this industrial site was developed by the Netherlands East Indies’ government in the globally important period of industrialisation from the late 19th to the beginning of the 20th century. The workforce was recruited from the local Minangkabau people and supplemented by Javanese and Chinese contract workers, and convict labourers from Dutch-controlled areas. It comprises the mining site and company town, coal storage facilities at the port of Emmahaven and the railway network linking the mines to the coastal facilities. The Ombilin Coal Mining Heritage was built as an integrated system that enabled the efficient deep-bore extraction, processing, transport and shipment of coal. It is also an outstanding testimony of exchange and fusion between local knowledge and practices and European technology.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Ombilin Coal Mining Heritage of Sawahlunto</site><states>Indonesia</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2311</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1979</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/113</http_url><id_number>113</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_113.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ir</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>32.0833000000</latitude><location>Khuzestan</location><longitude>48.5333333300</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The ruins of the holy city of the Kingdom of Elam, surrounded by three huge concentric walls, are found at Tchogha Zanbil. Founded c. 1250 B.C., the city remained unfinished after it was invaded by Ashurbanipal, as shown by the thousands of unused bricks left at the site.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Tchogha Zanbil</site><states>Iran (Islamic Republic of)</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>122</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(iii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1979</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/114</http_url><id_number>114</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_114.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ir</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>29.9344400000</latitude><location>Fars</location><longitude>52.8902800000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Founded by Darius I in 518 B.C., Persepolis was the capital of the Achaemenid Empire. It was built on an immense half-artificial, half-natural terrace, where the king of kings created an impressive palace complex inspired by Mesopotamian models. The importance and quality of the monumental ruins make it a unique archaeological site.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Persepolis</site><states>Iran (Islamic Republic of)</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>123</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(v)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>1979</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/115</http_url><id_number>115</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_115.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ir</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>32.6574500000</latitude><location>Esfahan</location><longitude>51.6777777777</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Built by Shah Abbas I the Great at the beginning of the 17th century, and bordered on all sides by monumental buildings linked by a series of two-storeyed arcades, the site is known for the Royal Mosque, the Mosque of Sheykh Lotfollah, the magnificent Portico of Qaysariyyeh and the 15th-century Timurid palace. They are an impressive testimony to the level of social and cultural life in Persia during the Safavid era.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Meidan Emam, Esfahan</site><states>Iran (Islamic Republic of)</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>125</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2003</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1077</http_url><id_number>1077</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1077.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ir</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;Criterion i: &lt;br /&gt; Takht-e Soleyman is an outstanding ensemble of royal architecture, joining the principal architectural elements created by the Sasanians in a harmonious composition inspired by their natural context.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;Criterion ii: &lt;br /&gt; The composition and the architectural elements created by the Sasanians at Takht-e Soleyman have had strong influence not only in the development of religious architecture in the Islamic period, but also in other cultures.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;Criterion iii: &lt;br /&gt; The ensemble of Takht-e Soleyman is an exceptional testimony of the continuation of cult related to fire and water over a period of some two and half millennia. The archaeological heritage of the site is further enriched by the Sasanian town, which is still to be excavated.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;Criterion iv: &lt;br /&gt; Takht-e Soleyman represents an outstanding example of Zoroastrian sanctuary, integrated with Sasanian palatial architecture within a composition, which can be seen as a prototype.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;Criterion vi: &lt;br /&gt; As the principal Zoroastrian sanctuary, Takht-e Soleyman is the foremost site associated with one of the early monotheistic religions of the world. The site has many important symbolic relationships, being also a testimony of the association of the ancient beliefs, much earlier than the Zoroastrianism, as well as in its association with significant biblical figures and legends.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>36.6038888900</latitude><location>Western Azerbaijan Province</location><longitude>47.2350000000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The archaeological site of Takht-e Soleyman, in north-western Iran, is situated in a valley set in a volcanic mountain region. The site includes the principal Zoroastrian sanctuary partly rebuilt in the Ilkhanid (Mongol) period (13th century) as well as a temple of the Sasanian period (6th and 7th centuries) dedicated to Anahita. The site has important symbolic significance. The designs of the fire temple, the palace and the general layout have strongly influenced the development of Islamic architecture.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Takht-e Soleyman</site><states>Iran (Islamic Republic of)</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1254</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2004</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1106</http_url><id_number>1106</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1106.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ir</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (i):&lt;/em&gt; Pasargadae is the first outstanding expression of the royal Achaemenid architecture.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; The dynastic capital of Pasargadae was built by Cyrus the Great with a contribution by different peoples of the empire created by him. It became a fundamental phase in the evolution of the classic Persian art and architecture.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii):&lt;/em&gt; The archaeological site of Pasargadae with its palaces, gardens, and the tomb of the founder of the dynasty, Cyrus the Great, represents an exceptional testimony to the Achaemenid civilisation in Persia.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; The &amp;lsquo;Four Gardens&amp;rsquo; type of royal ensemble, which was created in Pasargadae became a prototype for Western Asian architecture and design.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>30.1938300000</latitude><location>Pars Province</location><longitude>53.1672900000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Pasargadae was the first dynastic capital of the Achaemenid Empire, founded by Cyrus II the Great, in Pars, homeland of the Persians, in the 6th century BC. Its palaces, gardens and the mausoleum of Cyrus are outstanding examples of the first phase of royal Achaemenid art and architecture and exceptional testimonies of Persian civilization. Particularly noteworthy vestiges in the 160-ha site include: the Mausoleum of Cyrus II; Tall-e Takht, a fortified terrace; and a royal ensemble of gatehouse, audience hall, residential palace and gardens. Pasargadae was the capital of the first great multicultural empire in Western Asia. Spanning the Eastern Mediterranean and Egypt to the Hindus River, it is considered to be the first empire that respected the cultural diversity of its different peoples. This was reflected in Achaemenid architecture, a synthetic representation of different cultures.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Pasargadae</site><states>Iran (Islamic Republic of)</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1284</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2005</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1188</http_url><id_number>1188</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1188.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ir</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii): &lt;/em&gt; The Mausoleum of Oljaytu forms an essential link in the development of the Islamic architecture in central and western Asia, from the classical Seljuk phase into the Timurid period. This is particularly relevant to the double-shell structure and the elaborate use of materials and themes in the decoration.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii): &lt;/em&gt; Soltaniyeh as the ancient capital of the Ilkhanid dynasty represents an exceptional testimony to the history of the 13th and 14th centuries.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv): &lt;/em&gt; The Mausoleum of Oljaytu represents an outstanding achievement in the development of Persian architecture particularly in the Ilkhanid period, characterized by its innovative engineering structure, spatial proportions, architectural forms and the decorative patterns and techniques.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>36.4352800000</latitude><location>Zanjan province</location><longitude>48.7966700000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The mausoleum of Oljaytu was constructed in 1302&amp;ndash;12 in the city of Soltaniyeh, the capital of the Ilkhanid dynasty, which was founded by the Mongols. Situated in the province of Zanjan, Soltaniyeh is one of the outstanding examples of the achievements of Persian architecture and a key monument in the development of its Islamic architecture. The octagonal building is crowned with a 50 m tall dome covered in turquoise-blue faience and surrounded by eight slender minarets. It is the earliest existing example of the double-shelled dome in Iran. The mausoleum&amp;rsquo;s interior decoration is also outstanding and scholars such as A.U. Pope have described the building as &amp;lsquo;anticipating the Taj Mahal&amp;rsquo;.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Soltaniyeh</site><states>Iran (Islamic Republic of)</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1365</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)</criteria_txt><danger>0</danger><date_inscribed>2006</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1222</http_url><id_number>1222</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1222.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ir</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>34.3883333333</latitude><location>Province of Kermanshah</location><longitude>47.4366666666</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Bisotun is located along the ancient trade route linking the Iranian high plateau with Mesopotamia and features remains from the prehistoric times to the Median, Achaemenid, Sassanian, and Ilkhanid periods. The principal monument of this archaeological site is the bas-relief and cuneiform inscription ordered by Darius I, The Great, when he rose to the throne of the Persian Empire, 521 BC. The bas-relief portrays Darius holding a bow, as a sign of sovereignty, and treading on the chest of a figure who lies on his back before him. According to legend, the figure represents Gaumata, the Median Magus and pretender to the throne whose assassination led to Darius&amp;rsquo;s rise to power. Below and around the bas-reliefs, there are ca. 1,200 lines of inscriptions telling the story of the battles Darius waged in 521-520 BC against the governors who attempted to take apart the Empire founded by Cyrus. The inscription is written in three languages. The oldest is an Elamite text referring to legends describing the king and the rebellions. This is followed by a Babylonian version of similar legends. The last phase of the inscription is particularly important, as it is here that Darius introduced for the first time the Old Persian version of his res gestae (things done). This is the only known monumental text of the Achaemenids to document the re-establishment of the Empire by Darius I. It also bears witness to the interchange of influences in the development of monumental art and writing in the region of the Persian Empire. There are also remains from the Median period (8th to 7th centuries B.C.) as well as from the Achaemenid (6th to 4th centuries B.C.) and post-Achaemenid periods.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Bisotun</site><states>Iran (Islamic Republic of)</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1399</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2008</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1262</http_url><id_number>1262</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1262.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ir</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>38.9788888889</latitude><location></location><longitude>45.4733333333</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Armenian Monastic Ensembles&amp;nbsp;of Iran, in the north-west of the country, consists of three monastic ensembles of the Armenian Christian faith: St Thaddeus and St Stepanos and the Chapel of Dzordzor. These edifices - the oldest of which, St Thaddeus, dates back to the 7th century &amp;ndash; are examples of outstanding universal value of the Armenian architectural and decorative traditions. They bear testimony to very important interchanges with the other regional cultures, in particular the Byzantine, Orthodox and Persian. Situated on the south-eastern fringe of the main zone of the Armenian cultural space, the monasteries constituted a major centre for the dissemination of that culture in the region. They are the last regional remains of this culture that are still in a satisfactory state of integrity and authenticity. Furthermore, as places of pilgrimage, the monastic ensembles are living witnesses of Armenian religious traditions through the centuries.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Armenian Monastic Ensembles of Iran</site><states>Iran (Islamic Republic of)</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1542</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2004</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1208</http_url><id_number>1208</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1208.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ir</iso_code><justification>&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (ii):&lt;/em&gt; Bam developed at the crossroads of important trade routes at the southern side of the Iranian high plateau, and it became an outstanding example of the interaction of the various influences.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iii):&lt;/em&gt; The Bam and its Cultural Landscape represents an exceptional testimony to the development of a trading settlement in the desert environment of the Central Asian region.&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (iv):&lt;/em&gt; The city of Bam represents an outstanding example of a fortified settlement and citadel in the Central Asian region, based on the use mud layer technique (Chineh) combined with mud bricks (Khesht).&lt;/p&gt;&#xd;
&lt;p&gt;&lt;em&gt;Criterion (v):&lt;/em&gt; The cultural landscape of Bam is an outstanding representation of the interaction of man and nature in a desert environment, using the qanats. The system is based on a strict social system with precise tasks and responsibilities, which have been maintained in use until the present, but has now become vulnerable to irreversible change.&lt;/p&gt;</justification><latitude>29.1168300000</latitude><location>Kerman Province, Bam District</location><longitude>58.3666666667</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Bam is situated in a desert environment on the southern edge of the Iranian high plateau. The origins of Bam can be traced back to the Achaemenid period (6th to 4th centuries BC). Its heyday was from the 7th to 11th centuries, being at the crossroads of important trade routes and known for the production of silk and cotton garments. The existence of life in the oasis was based on the underground irrigation canals, the qanāts, of which Bam has preserved some of the earliest evidence in Iran. Arg-e Bam is the most representative example of a fortified medieval town built in vernacular technique using mud layers (&lt;em&gt;Chineh&lt;/em&gt; ).&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Bam and its Cultural Landscape</site><states>Iran (Islamic Republic of)</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1564</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2009</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1315</http_url><id_number>1315</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1315.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ir</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>32.0186111111</latitude><location></location><longitude>48.8358333333</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Shushtar, Historical Hydraulic System, inscribed as a masterpiece of creative genius, can be traced back to Darius the Great in the 5th century B.C. It involved the creation of two main diversion canals on the river K&amp;acirc;run one of which, Gargar canal, is still in use providing water to the city of Shushtar via a series of tunnels that supply water to mills. It forms a spectacular cliff from which water cascades into a downstream basin. It then enters the plain situated south of the city where it has enabled the planting of orchards and farming over an area of 40,000 ha. known as Mian&amp;acirc;b (Paradise). The property has an ensemble of remarkable sites including the Sal&amp;acirc;sel Castel, the operation centre of the entire hydraulic system, the tower where the water level is measured, damns, bridges, basins and mills. It bears witness to the know-how of the Elamites and Mesopotamians as well as more recent Nabatean expertise and Roman building influence.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System</site><states>Iran (Islamic Republic of)</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1599</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2010</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1345</http_url><id_number>1345</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1345.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ir</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>38.2486111111</latitude><location></location><longitude>48.2913888889</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Built between the beginning of the 16&lt;sup&gt;&lt;span style="font-size: xx-small;"&gt;th&lt;/span&gt; &lt;/sup&gt; century and the end of the 18&lt;sup&gt;&lt;span style="font-size: xx-small;"&gt;th&lt;/span&gt; &lt;/sup&gt; century, this place of spiritual retreat in the Sufi tradition uses Iranian traditional architectural forms to maximize use of available space to accommodate a variety of functions (including a library, a mosque, a school, mausolea, a cistern, a hospital, kitchens, a bakery, and some offices). It incorporates a route to reach the shrine of the Sheikh divided into seven segments, which mirror the seven stages of Sufi mysticism, separated by eight gates, which represent the eight attitudes of Sufism. The ensemble includes well-preserved and richly ornamented facades and interiors, with a remarkable collection of antique artefacts. It constitutes a rare ensemble of elements of medieval Islamic architecture.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Sheikh Safi al-din Khānegāh and Shrine Ensemble in Ardabil</site><states>Iran (Islamic Republic of)</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1680</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2010</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1346</http_url><id_number>1346</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1346.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ir</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>38.0813888889</latitude><location></location><longitude>46.2930555556</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Tabriz has been a place of cultural exchange since antiquity and its historic bazaar complex is one of the most important commercial centres on the Silk Road. Tabriz Historic Bazaar Complex consists of a series of interconnected, covered, brick structures, buildings, and enclosed spaces for different functions. Tabriz and its Bazaar were already prosperous and famous in the 13th century, when the town, in the province of Eastern Azerbaijan, became the capital city of the Safavid kingdom. The city lost its status as capital in the 16th century, but remained important as a commercial hub until the end of the 18th century, with the expansion of Ottoman power. It is one of the most complete examples of the traditional commercial and cultural system of Iran.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Tabriz Historic Bazaar Complex</site><states>Iran (Islamic Republic of)</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1681</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2011</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1372</http_url><id_number>1372</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1372.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ir</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>30.1666666667</latitude><location></location><longitude>53.1666666667</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The property includes nine gardens in as many provinces. They exemplify the diversity of Persian garden designs that evolved and adapted to different climate conditions while retaining principles that have their roots in the times of Cyrus the Great, 6th century BC. Always divided into four sectors, with water playing an important role for both irrigation and ornamentation, the Persian garden was conceived to symbolize Eden and the four Zoroastrian elements of sky, earth, water and plants. These gardens, dating back to different periods since the 6th century BC, also feature buildings, pavilions and walls, as well as sophisticated irrigation systems. They have influenced the art of garden design as far as India and Spain.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>The Persian Garden</site><states>Iran (Islamic Republic of)</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1768</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2012</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1397</http_url><id_number>1397</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1397.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ir</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>32.6697222222</latitude><location></location><longitude>51.6852777778</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Located in the historic centre of Isfahan, the Masjed-e Jām&amp;eacute; (&amp;lsquo;Friday mosque&amp;rsquo;) can be seen as a stunning illustration of the evolution of mosque architecture over twelve centuries, starting in ad&amp;nbsp;841. It is the oldest preserved edifice of its type in Iran and a prototype for later mosque designs throughout Central Asia. The complex, covering more than 20,000&amp;nbsp;m&lt;sup&gt;2&lt;/sup&gt;, is also the first Islamic building that adapted the four-courtyard layout of Sassanid palaces to Islamic religious architecture. Its double-shelled ribbed domes represent an architectural innovation that inspired builders throughout the region. The site also features remarkable decorative details representative of stylistic developments over more than a thousand years of Islamic art.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Masjed-e Jāmé of Isfahan </site><states>Iran (Islamic Republic of)</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1821</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2012</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1398</http_url><id_number>1398</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1398.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ir</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>37.2580277778</latitude><location></location><longitude>55.1690000000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The 53&amp;nbsp;m high tomb built in ad 1006 for Qābus Ibn Voshmgir, Ziyarid ruler and literati, near the ruins of the ancient city of Jorjan in north-east Iran, bears testimony to the cultural exchange between Central Asian nomads and the ancient civilization of Iran. The tower is the only remaining evidence of Jorjan, a former centre of arts and science that was destroyed during the Mongols&amp;rsquo; invasion in the 14th and 15th centuries. It is an outstanding and technologically innovative example of Islamic architecture that influenced sacral building in Iran, Anatolia and Central Asia. Built of unglazed fired bricks, the monument&amp;rsquo;s intricate geometric forms constitute a tapering cylinder with a diameter of 17&amp;ndash;15.5&amp;nbsp;m, topped by a conical brick roof. It illustrates the development of mathematics and science in the Muslim world at the turn of the first millennium AD.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Gonbad-e Qābus</site><states>Iran (Islamic Republic of)</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1822</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2013</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1422</http_url><id_number>1422</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1422.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ir</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>35.6803666667</latitude><location></location><longitude>51.4205111111</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The lavish Golestan Palace is a masterpiece of the Qajar era, embodying the successful integration of earlier Persian crafts and architecture with Western influences. The walled Palace, one of the oldest groups of buildings in Teheran, became the seat of government of the Qajar family, which came into power in 1779 and made Teheran the capital of the country. Built around a garden featuring pools as well as planted areas, the Palace’s most characteristic features and rich ornaments date from the 19th century. It became a centre of Qajari arts and architecture of which it is an outstanding example and has remained a source of inspiration for Iranian artists and architects to this day. It represents a new style incorporating traditional Persian arts and crafts and elements of 18th century architecture and technology.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Golestan Palace</site><states>Iran (Islamic Republic of)</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1888</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2015</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1455</http_url><id_number>1455</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1455.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ir</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>32.1894444444</latitude><location></location><longitude>48.2561111111</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Located in the south-west of Iran, in the lower Zagros Mountains, the property encompasses a group of archaeological mounds rising on the eastern side of the Shavur River, as well as Ardeshir’s palace, on the opposite bank of the river. The excavated architectural monuments include administrative, residential and palatial structures. Susa contains several layers of superimposed urban settlements in a continuous succession from the late 5&lt;sup&gt;th&lt;/sup&gt; millennium BCE until the 13&lt;sup&gt;th&lt;/sup&gt; century CE. The site bears exceptional testimony to the Elamite, Persian and Parthian cultural traditions, which have largely disappeared.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Susa</site><states>Iran (Islamic Republic of)</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>1999</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2014</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1456</http_url><id_number>1456</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1456.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ir</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>30.5938888889</latitude><location></location><longitude>61.3277777778</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Shahr-i Sokhta, meaning ‘Burnt City’, is located at the junction of Bronze Age trade routes crossing the Iranian plateau. The remains of the mudbrick city represent the emergence of the first complex societies in eastern Iran. Founded around 3200 BC, it was populated during four main periods up to 1800 BC, during which time there developed several distinct areas within the city: those where monuments were built, and separate quarters for housing, burial and manufacture. Diversions in water courses and climate change led to the eventual abandonment of the city in the early second millennium. The structures, burial grounds and large number of significant artefacts unearthed there, and their well-preserved state due to the dry desert climate, make this site a rich source of information regarding the emergence of complex societies and contacts between them in the third millennium BC.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Shahr-i Sokhta</site><states>Iran (Islamic Republic of)</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2000</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2015</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1423</http_url><id_number>1423</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1423.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ir</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>30.1680555556</latitude><location></location><longitude>55.3755555556</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;&lt;span&gt;Maymand is a self-contained, semi-arid area at the end of a valley at the southern extremity of Iran’s central mountains. The villagers are semi-nomadic agro-pastoralists. They raise their animals on mountain pastures, living in temporary settlements in spring and autumn. During the winter months they live lower down the valley in cave dwellings carved out of the soft rock (&lt;/span&gt;&lt;em&gt;kamar&lt;/em&gt;&lt;span&gt;), an unusual form of housing in a dry, desert environment.  This cultural landscape is an example of a system that appears to have been more widespread in the past and involves the movement of people rather than animals.&lt;/span&gt;&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Cultural Landscape of Maymand</site><states>Iran (Islamic Republic of)</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2073</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(vii)(viii)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2016</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1505</http_url><id_number>1505</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1505.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ir</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>30.2161111111</latitude><location></location><longitude>58.8388888889</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The Lut Desert, or Dasht-e-Lut, is located in the south-east of the country. Between June and October, this arid subtropical area is swept by strong winds, which transport sediment and cause aeolian erosion on a colossal scale. Consequently, the site presents some of the most spectacular examples of aeolian yardang landforms (massive corrugated ridges). It also contains extensive stony deserts and dune fields. The property represents an exceptional example of ongoing geological processes. &lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Lut Desert</site><states>Iran (Islamic Republic of)</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2095</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(iv)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2016</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1506</http_url><id_number>1506</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1506.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ir</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>34.2900000000</latitude><location></location><longitude>58.6544444444</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Throughout the arid regions of Iran, agricultural and permanent settlements are supported by the ancient qanat system of tapping alluvial aquifers at the heads of valleys and conducting the water along underground tunnels by gravity, often over many kilometres. The eleven qanats representing this system include rest areas for workers, water reservoirs and watermills. The traditional communal management system still in place allows equitable and sustainable water sharing and distribution. The qanats provide exceptional testimony to cultural traditions and civilizations in desert areas with an arid climate.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>The Persian Qanat</site><states>Iran (Islamic Republic of)</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2096</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(iii)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2017</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1544</http_url><id_number>1544</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1544.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ir</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>31.9013888889</latitude><location></location><longitude>54.3691666667</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The City of Yazd is located in the middle of the Iranian plateau, 270 km southeast of Isfahan, close to the Spice and Silk Roads. It bears living testimony to the use of limited resources for survival in the desert. Water is supplied to the city through a qanat system developed to draw underground water. The earthen architecture of Yazd has escaped the modernization that destroyed many traditional earthen towns, retaining its traditional districts, the qanat system, traditional houses, bazars, hammams, mosques, synagogues, Zoroastrian temples and the historic garden of Dolat-abad.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Historic City of Yazd</site><states>Iran (Islamic Republic of)</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2148</unique_number></row><row><category>Cultural</category><criteria_txt>(ii)(iii)(v)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2018</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1568</http_url><id_number>1568</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1568.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ir</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>29.7774805556</latitude><location></location><longitude>51.5704500000</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;The eight archaeological sites situated in three geographical areas in the southeast of Fars Province: Firuzabad, Bishapur and Sarvestan. The fortified structures, palaces and city plans date back to the earliest and latest times of the Sassanian Empire, which stretched across the region from 224 to 658 CE. Among these sites is the capital built by the founder of the dynasty, Ardashir Papakan, as well as a city and architectural structures of his successor, Shapur I. The archaeological landscape reflects the optimized utilization of natural topography and bears witness to the influence of Achaemenid and Parthian cultural traditions and of Roman art, which had a significant impact on the architecture of the Islamic era.&lt;/p&gt;</short_description><site>Sassanid Archaeological Landscape of Fars Region</site><states>Iran (Islamic Republic of)</states><transboundary>0</transboundary><unique_number>2233</unique_number></row><row><category>Natural</category><criteria_txt>(ix)</criteria_txt><danger></danger><date_inscribed>2019</date_inscribed><extension>0</extension><http_url>https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1584</http_url><id_number>1584</id_number><image_url>https://whc.unesco.org/uploads/sites/site_1584.jpg</image_url><iso_code>ir</iso_code><justification></justification><latitude>37.4214722222</latitude><location></location><longitude>55.7242777778</longitude><region>Asia and the Pacific</region><revision>0</revision><secondary_dates></secondary_dates><short_description>&lt;p&gt;Hyrcanian forests form a unique forested massif that stretches 850 km along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea. The history of these broad-leaved forests dates back 25 to 50 million years, when they covered most of this Northern Temperate region. These ancient forest areas retreated during the Quaternary glaciations and then expanded again as the climate became milder. Their floristic biodiversity is remarkable: 44% of the vascular plants known in Iran are found in the Hyrcanian region, which only covers 7% of the country. To date, 180 species of birds typical of broad-leaved temperate forests and 58 mammal species have been recorded, including the iconic Persian Leopard (&lt;em&gt;Panthera pardus tulliana&